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The Douay Catechism of 1649 

by Henry Tuberville, D.D. 









"This is the way, walk ye in it. " - Isaiah xxx. 21. 






THE principle part of the Catechism is an Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine; 
defended and cleared by proofs of scripture, in points controverted between Catholics 
and Sectaries; and explained by the familiar way of question and answer. 

To this, in the former impressions, was only adjoined a necessary exposition of the 
Mass, our Lady's Office, and the festival days of the year, but to this last edition is added, 
an Explanation of certain ceremonies of the Church, which now renders it more 
complete for instructing the ignorant, in the whole doctrine and discipline of the 
Catholic Church. 

Besides I have corrected some false citations, and other errata, which by the printer's 
negligence, occurred in the former impressions. 

Peruse it, good reader, with such charity as I have penned it, and if by it perusal thou 
shalt become more knowing in the law of Christ, and in practice more dutiful to God, 
and thy neighbour, it will abundantly recompense the labour of 

Thy well-wishing friend 
And servant in CHRIST 


CUM Liber inscriptus, An Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine, &c. authore viro 
doctor H. T. mihi probe note, intertia Editione, quam non indiligenter perlegi, nihil 
continea contra sanam Doctrinam vel bonos Mores; multa vero partim scitu 
necessaria, partim valde utilia, dilucide & succincte, in Fide Catholica instituen dis 
proponat, dignum censeo qui ob publicam utilitatem Typis evulgetur. 

Datum Duaci, Martii n, 1649. 

Gulielmus Hydeus, S. T. D., ac professor, 

Colligii Anglorum Duacensis Preeses 
& Librorum Censor. 


WE feel pleasure in recommending to the faithful of our Diocese this edition of "An 
Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine, with proofs of Scripture on points controverted," 
as we have found it essentially conformable to the Dublin edition of 1820, of the 
correctness of which we entertain no doubt. 


Boston, April 24th, 1833 


CHAP. l. What a Christian is: And of the Blessed Trinity l 

CHAP. 2. Faith Explained 2 

CHAP. 3. The Creed Expounded 3 

The First Article 3 

The Second Article 5 

The Third Article 7 

The Fourth Article 7 

The Fifth Article 8 

The Sixth Article 9 

The Seventh Article 9 

The Eighth Article 11 

The Ninth Article 11 

The Tenth Article 18 

The Eleventh Article 20 

The Twelfth Article 21 

CHAP. 4. Hope and Prayer Explained 21 

CHAP. 5. The Lord's Prayer Expounded 24 

The First Petition 25 

The Second Petition 25 

The Third Petition 26 

The Fourth Petition 26 

The Fifth Petition 26 

The Sixth Petition 27 

The Seventh Petition 27 

CHAP. 6. The Hail Mary, or Angelical Salutation 28 

The First Part of the Hail Mary 28 

The Second Part of the Hail Mary 29 

The Third Part of the Hail Mary 29 

CHAP. 7. Charity Expounded 30 

CHAP. 8. Of the Commandments in general 32 


The First Commandment Expounded 33 

The Second Commandment Expounded 38 

The Third Commandment Expounded 39 


The Fourth Commandment Expounded 41 

The Fifth Commandment Expounded 43 

The Sixth Commandment Expounded 44 

The Seventh Commandment Expounded 45 

The Eighth Commandment Expounded 46 

The Ninth and Tenth Commandments Expounded 47 

CHAP. 9. The Precepts of the Church Expounded 48 

The First Precept of the Church Expounded 48 

The Second Precept of the Church Expounded 49 


The Third Precept of the Church Expounded 50 

The Fourth Precept of the Church Expounded 50 

The Fifth Precept of the Church Expounded 50 

The Sixth Precept of the Church Expounded 50 

CHAP. 10. The Council of Christ and his Church Expounded 51 

The First Counsel 51 

The Second Counsel 51 

The Third Counsel 52 

CHAP. 11. Of the Sacraments in general 52 

Baptism Expounded 54 

Confirmation Expounded 57 

The Eucharist Expounded 59 

Penance Expounded 63 

Extreme Unction Expounded 66 

Holy Order Expounded 67 

Matrimony Expounded 69 

CHAP. 12. The Cardinal Virtues Expounded 72 

CHAP. 13. The Gifts of the Holy Ghost Expounded 72 

CHAP. 14. The Twelve Fruits of the Holy Ghost Expounded 73 

CHAP. 15. The Works of Mercy (corporal and spiritual) Expounded 74 

CHAP. 16. The Eight Beatitudes 75 

CHAP. 17. The Kinds of Sin Expounded 75 

CHAP. 18. The Seven Deadly Sins Expounded 78 

Pride Expounded 78 

Covetousness Expounded 79 

Lechery Expounded 80 

Envy Expounded 81 

Gluttony Expounded 81 

Anger Expounded 82 

Sloth Expounded 82 

CHAP. 19. The Sins against the Holy Ghost Expounded 83 

CHAP. 20. The Sins that cry to Heaven for Vengeance Expounded 84 

CHAP. 21. The Four Last Things Expounded 85 

CHAP. 22. The Substance or Essence, and Ceremonies of the Mass, Expounded 86 

CHAP. 23. The Primer or Office of our Blessed Lady, Expounded 95 

The Particulars of the Office Expounded 96 

CHAP. 24. The Solemnities of CHRIST our Lord, (instituted for the most part by the 

Apostles) and the Sundays of the Year, expounded 99 

The Feasts of our Blessed Lady, and the Saints, Expounded 102 

CHAP. 25. Some Ceremonies of the Church Expounded 105 

Chapter 1. 

What a Christian is: And of the Blessed Trinity. 

Q. l. Quest. CHILD, what religion 
are you of? 

Ans. Sir, by the benefit and grace of God, 
I am Christian. 

Q. 2. Whom understand you by a 

A. Him that inwardly believes and 
outwardly professes the law of Christ. 

Q. 3. When are we obliged to make 
an external profession of it? 

A. As often as God's honour, our own, or 
neighbour's good requires it. 

Q. 4. How prove you that we are 
bound outwardly to profess our 

A. Out of St. Matt. x. 32, where Christ 
saith, Every one, therefore, that shall 
confess me before men, I will confess 
him before my Father who is in heaven. 
But he that shall deny me before men, I 
also will deny him before my Father who 
is in heaven. 

Q. 5. Are we bound also to venture 
the ruin of our estates, the loss of 
our friends, and to lay down our 
very lives for the profession and 
defence of our faith? 

A. Doubtless we are: seeing the reward 
we expect in heaven, infinitely exceeds 
all the pleasures and punishments of 
this life. And because Christ the Son of 
the living God, has suffered far greater 
things for us, even to a disgraceful death 
on the cross? and therefore, it were base 
ingratitude in us, not to be ready to give 

our lives for him as often as his honour 
shall require it. Luke, xiv. 26, 33. 

Q. 6. In what doth the faith and 
law of Christ chiefly consist? 

A. In two principle mysteries, namely, 
the unity and trinity of God, and the 
incarnation and death of our Saviour. 

Q. 7. What means the unity and 
trinity of God? 

A. It means, that in God there is but one 
only divine nature or essence, and that 
in the same one and divine nature there 
are three persons, the Father, and the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost. 

Q. 8. How show you that? 

A. Out of John, v. 7. There are three that 
give testimony in heaven, the Father, the 
Word, and the Holy Ghost, and these 
three are one. 

Q. 9. Why are there but three 
Persons only? 

A. Because the Father had no beginning, 
nor proceeds from any other person; the 
Son proceeds from the Father, and Holy 
Ghost proceeds from the Father and the 

Q. 10. What means the incarnation 
and death of our Saviour? 

A. It means that the second person of 
the blessed Trinity was made man, and 
died on the cross to save us. 

Q. 11. In what are these two 
mysteries signified? 

A. In the sign of the cross, as it is made 
by Catholics, for when we put our right 


hand to our head, saying, In the name 
we signify Unity; and when we make the 
sign of the cross saying, Of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, 
we signify Trinity. 

Q. 12. How doth the sign of the 
cross represent the incarnation 
and death of our Saviour? 

A. By putting us in mind that he was 
made man and died upon the cross for 

Chapter 2 
Faith Explained 

Q. 13. WHAT is faith? 

A. It is a gift of God or a supernatural 
quality, infused by God into the soul, by 
which we firmly believe all those things 
which he hath any way revealed to us. 

Q. 14. Is faith necessary to 

A. It is; St. Paul assuring that without 
faith it is impossible to please God. Heb. 
xi. 6. and St. Mark, xvi. 16, saying, He 
that believeth not shall be condemned. 

Q. 15. Why must we firmly believe 
matters of faith? 

A. Because God hath revealed them, who 
can neither deceive, nor be deceived. A 
second reason is, because not only all 
points of faith, but also the rule, or 
necessary and infallible means whereby 
to know them, to wit, the church's oral 
and universal tradition, are absolutely 
certain, and cannot lead us into error in 
faith; else we can never sufficiently be 
assured what is faith, or what is not. 

Q. 16. If a man should deny, or 
obstinately doubt of some one 
point of faith, would he be thereby 
lose his whole faith? 

A. Yes, he would; because true faith 
must always be entire, and he that fails 
in one, is made guilty of all, by 
discrediting the authority of God 
revealing it. 

Q. 17. Is it not enough to believe all 
that is written in the Bible? 

A. No, it is not: For we must also believe 
all apostolic tradition. 

Q. 18. How prove you that? 

A. Out of 2 Thess. ii. 15. Therefore 
brethren (saith St. Paul) stand and hold 
ye the traditions which ye have learned, 
whether by word, or by our Epistle. 

Q. 19. What other proof have you? 

A. The apostle's Creed, which all are 
bound to believe, although it be not in 

Q. 20. Is faith only, as excluding 
good works, sufficient to 

A. No: it is not: St. James, ii. 24, saying, 
Do you see how that by works a man is 
justified, and not by faith only? And St. 
Paul, saying, 1 Cor. xiii. 2. If I should 
have all faith, so that I could remove 


mountains, and not have charity, I am 
nothing. And if I should distribute all 
my goods to feed the poor, and if I 
should deliver by body to be burned, and 
have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. 

Q. 21. What faith will suffice to 

A. Faith working by charity in Jesus 

Q. 22. What vice is opposite to 

A. Heresy. 

Q. 23. What is Heresy? 

A. Is it an obstinate error in things that 
are of faith. 

Q. 24. Is it a grievous sin? 

A. A very grievous one, because it wholly 
divides a man from God, and leads to 
atheism, Christ saying, if he will not 
hear the church let him be to thee as an 
heathen and a publican, Matt, xviii. 17. 

Chapter 3. 

The Creed Expounded 

Q. 25. WHAT is the creed? 

A. It is the sum of belief. 

Q. 26. Who made it? 

A. The twelve apostles. 

Q. 27. At what time did they make 

A. Before they divided themselves into 
the several countries of the world to 
preach the gospel. 

Q. 28. For what end did they make 

A. That so they might be able to teach 
one and the same doctrine in all places. 

Q. 29. What doth the creed 

A. All those chief things which we are 
bound to believe, concerning God and 
his church. 

The First Article 

Q. 30. What is the first article of 
the creed? 

A. I believe in God the Father Almighty, 
Creator of heaven and earth. 

Q. 31. What signifies I believe? 

A. It signifies as much as I most firmly 
and undoubtedly hold. 

Q. 32. What means, I believe in 

A. It means that not only that I firmly 
believe there is a God, but also that I am 
piously affected to him, as to say chiefest 
good and last end, with confidence in 
him, or otherwise that I move unto him 
by faith, hope, and charity. 

Q. 33. What signifies the word 


A. It signifies the first person of the most 
blessed Trinity, who by nature is the 
Father of his own only begotten Son, the 
second Person of the blessed Trinity; by 
adoption is the Father of all good 
Christians; and by creations is the 
Father of all creatures. 

Q. 34. What means the word 

A. It means that God is able to do all 
things as he pleaseth; that he sees all 
things, knows all things, and governs all 

Q. 35. Why is he called Almighty in 
this place? 

A. That we might doubt of nothing 
which follows. 

Q. 36. What signify the words, 
Creator of heaven and earth? 

A. They signify that God made heaven 
and earth, and all creatures in them, of 
nothing, by his sole word, Gen. i. 

Q. 37. What moved God to make 

A. His own mere goodness, that so he 
might communicate himself to angels, 
and to men, for whom he made all other 

Q. 38. When did God create the 

A. On the first day when he created 
heaven and earth, Gen. i. where Moses 
implies the creation of angels in the 
word heaven, and makes no other 
mention of it. The Nicene creed, 
interpreting the Apostles' Creed, says, 
that the words Creator of heaven and 
earth, mean all things visible and 

Q. 39. For what end did God create 

A. To be partakers of his glory, and our 

Q. 40. How prove you by 
Scripture, that they be our 

A. Out of St. Matt, xviii. 10, where Christ 
saith 'See that you despise not one of 
these little ones: Fori day unto you, 
their angels in heaven always see the 
face of my Father who is in heaven.' 

Q. 41. Do the angels know our 
necessities, and hear our prayers? 

A. Doubtless they do, since God has 
deputed them to be our guardians; 
which is also proved out of Zach. i 12. 
where an angel prays for two whole 
cities; the words are 'Then the angel of 
the Lord answered and said, O Lord of 
hosts, how long wilt thou not have 
mercy on the cities of Juda and 
Jerusalem, against which thou hast been 
angry these seventy years?' 

Q. 42. What Scripture have you for 
praying to angels? 

A. Gen. xlviii. 16, where Jacob on his 
death bed prayed to an angel for 
Ephraim and Manasses, saying, 'The 
angel of the Lord that delivered me from 
all evils, bless these children.' 

This place is cited for prayer to the 
angels in the notes of the Rhemish 
Testament upon it, and is confirmed to 
signify a created angel by St. Basil, lib. 3. 
cont. Dunon. sub initio: And St. 
Chrysosthom. 7. in laudem Sancti Pauli. 

Q. 43. How did Lucifer and his 
fellow angels fall from their 
dignity in heaven? 

A. By a rebellious sin of pride. 

Q. 44. With what shall their ruins 
be repaired? 


A. Will holy men. 

Q. 45. When and to what likeness 
did God create man? 

A. On the sixth day, and to his own 
likeness: Gen. i. 27. 

Q. 46. In what doth the similitude 

A. In this, that man is in his soul an 
incorporeal, intellectual and immortal 
spirit, as God is. And in this, that as in 
God there is but one most divine nature 
or essence, and yet three distinct 
Persons; so in man there is but one 
indivisible soul, and yet in that soul 
three distinct powers, will, memory, and 

Q. 47. How do you prove the soul 
to be immortal? 

A. Out of Matt. x. 28, where Christ saith, 
'Fear not them that kill the body, and 
cannot kill the soul.' 

Q. 48. What other proof have you? 

A. Out of Eccles. xii. 7. At our death the 
dust returns to the earth from whence it 
was, and the spirit to God that gave it. 

Q. 49. In what state did God create 

A. In the state of original justice, and 
perfection of all natural gifts. 

Q. 50. Do we owe much to God for 
our creation? 

A. Very much, seeing he made us in such 
perfect state, creating us for himself, and 
all things else for us. 

Q. 51. How did we lose original 

A. By Adam's disobedience to God, in 
eating the forbidden fruit. 

Q. 52. In what state are we now 

A. In the state of original sin, and prone 
to actual sin, subject to death. 

Q. 53. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Rom. v. 12. 'By one man sin 
entered into the world, and by sin death; 
and so unto all men death did pass, in 
whom all have sinned.' 

Q. 54. Had man ever died, if he had 
never sinned? 

A. No, he had not, but had been 
converted by the tree of life, and been 
translated alive into the fellowship of the 

The Second Article 

Q. 55. SAY the second article. 

A. And in Jesus Christ his only Son our 

Q. 56. Of what treats this article? 

A. Of the second person of the blessed 
Trinity, in whom we also believe and put 
our trust. 

Q. 57. What is the second Person? 

A. He is true God, and true Man, in one 

Q. 58. How prove you that? 

A. Out of St. John's Gospel, chap. i. 1. 'In 
the beginning was the Word, and the 
Word was with God, and the Word was 
God, &c. And the Word was made flesh, 
and dwelt among us.' 

Q. 59. What other proof have you? 

A. Out of Phil. ii. 6, 7, where St. Paul 
saith, 'That Christ when he was in the 
form of God, thought it not robbery to 
be equal with God, but he hath lessened 


himself, taking the form of a servant, 
made unto the likeness of men; and 
found in habit as a man. 

Q. 60. Why should God be man? 

A. To redeem and save lost man. 

Q. 61. Was his incarnation 
necessary for that end? 

A. In the manner it was; because our 
offences against God were in some sort 
infinite; as being against his infinite 
goodness; and therefore required an 
infinite satisfaction; which no one could 
make but God and therefore he was 
made man. 

Q. 62. What other proof have you 
for the necessity of the 

A. Because God is in himself so spiritual, 
sublime, and abstract a thing, that if he 
had not in his mercy adapted his own 
inscrutable greatness to the littleness of 
our sensible capacity, by being made 
man, scarce on of a thousand would ever 
have been able to know anything to the 
purpose of him; or consequently to love 
and serve him as they ought, (which is 
the necessary means of our salvation) 
since nothing is efficaciously willed 
which is not first well understood. 

Q. 63. What benefit have we by the 
knowledge of God made man? 

A. It much inflames us with the love of 
God, who could not more have dignified 
men's nature, or shown more love to the 
world, then to send down his only Son to 
redeem it in our flesh. 

Q. 64. What signifies the name of 

A. It signifies a Saviour, St. Matt. i. 21. 

Q. 65. Is any special honour due to 
that name? 

A. There is, because it is the highest title 
of God made man. 

Q. 66. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Phil. ii. 8, 9, 10, where we read, 
'God hath given unto Christ because he 
hath humbled himself unto the death of 
the cross, a name which is above all 
names, the name of Jesus.' 

Q. 67. What other proof have you? 

A. Because there is no other name under 
heaven given to man, in which we must 
be saved. Acts iv. 12. 

Q. 68. How prove you that we must 
bow at this name? 

A. Out of Phil. ii. 10. That in the name of 
Jesus every knee should bow of those 
that are in heaven, on earth and in hell. 

Q. 69. What signifies the name 

A. It signifies anointed. 

Q. 70. Why was he called 

A. Because he was a priest, a prophet, 
and a king to all which unction pertains. 

Q. 71. With what was Christ 

A. With all the plenitude of divine grace. 

Q. 72. What mean the words, his 
only Son our Lord? 

A. They mean that Jesus Christ is the 
only Son of God the Father, begotten, as 
he is God, and of the same Father from 
all eternity, without a mother; and 
therefore is coequal and consubstantial 
to his Father; and consequently infinite, 
omnipotent Creator, and so Lord of us 
and all things, as the Father is. 

The Third Article 


Q. 73. WHAT is the third article? 

A. Who was conceived by the Holy 
Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary. 

Q. 74. What means, who was 
conceived by the Holy Ghost? 

A. It means that the second Person of 
the blessed Trinity took flesh of the 
Virgin Mary, not by a human generation, 
but by the work of the Holy Ghost. 

Q. 75. How prove you that? 

A. Out of St. Luke i. 31, 35. Behold (saith 
the angel) thou shalt conceive and bear a 
Son, &c. the Holy Ghost shall come upon 
thee, and the virtue of the Highest shall 
overshadow thee. 

Q. 76. What understand you by the 
words, born of the Virgin Mary? 

A. I understand that Christ was born of 
her at midnight, in a poor stable at 
Bethlehem, between an ox and an ass. 

Q. 77. Why at midnight? 

A. To signify that he came to take away 
the darkness of our sins. 

Q. 78. Why in Bethlehem? 

A. Because it was the head city of 
David's family, and Christ was of David's 

Q. 79. Why in a poor stable? 

A. To teach us to love poverty and 
contempt of this world. 

Q. 80. Why between an ox and an 

A. To fulfil that of the prophet, Thou 
shalt be known, O Lord, between two 
beasts, Habacuc xii. juxta Sept. 

Q. 81. What doth the birth of 
Christ avail us? 

A. It perfecteth in us faith, hope, and 

Q. 82. What signifies, "born of the 
Virgin Mary?" 

A. It signifies that Our Lady was a virgin 
not only before, but also in, and after 

The Fourth Article 

Q. 83. WHAT is the fourth article? 

A. Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was 
crucified dead and buried. 

Q. 84. What understand you by 
suffering under Pontius Pilate? 

A. I understand that Christ, after a 
painful life of thirty-three years, suffered 
most bitter torments under the wicked 
president Pontius Pilate. 

Q. 85. Where did he begin those 

A. In the garden of Gethsemani; that as 
sin began in the garden by the first 
Adam, so might grace also, by the 

Q. 86. What are those torments? 

A. His bloody sweat, his whipping at the 
pillar, his purple garment, his crown of 
thorns, his Sceptre of a reed, his 
carrying the cross, and many others. 

Q. 87. What understand you by the 
words, was crucified? 

A. I understand, he was nailed to a 
disgraceful cross between two thieves, 
for our offences, and to save us. 

Q. 88. Is it lawful to honour the 

A. Yes, with a relative honour it is, 
because it is a special memorial of our 


Saviour's passion, and is called the sign 
of the Son of man, St. Matt. xxiv. 30. 

Q. 89. What other reason have 

A. Because the cross was the sacred 
altar, on which Christ offered his bloody 

Q. 90. What scripture have you for 

A. Gal. vi. 14. 'God forbid, (saith St. 
Paul,) that I should glory, but in the 
cross of our Lord Jesus Christ.' 

Q. 91. What other proof have you? 

A. Out of Phil. iii. 18. Many walk (saith 
St. Paul) of whom I have often told you, 
and now again weeping, I tell you that 
they are enemies to the cross of Christ, 
&c. whose end is perdition. And out of 
Ezek. ix. 4, where we read, That such as 
were signed with the sign Tau, (which 
was a picture and figure of the cross,) 
were saved from the exterminating 
angel, and only such. 

Q. 92. What signifies the word 

A. It signifies that Christ suffered a true 
and real death. 

Q. 93. Why was it requisite he 
should die? 

A. To free us from the death of sin. 

Q. 94. Why died he, crying with a 
loud voice? 

A. To show he had power of his own life; 
and he freely gave it up for us, being 
strong and vigorous. 

Q. 95. Why died he bowing down 
his head? 

A. To signify his obedience to his Father, 
in the acceptance of his disgraceful 

Q. 96. What means buried? 

A. It means, that his body was laid in a 
new sepulchre, and buried with honour, 
as the prophet had foretold, Isa. xi. 10. 

The Fifth Article 

Q. 97. WHAT is the fifth article? 

A. He descended into hell, the third day 
he arose again from the dead. 

Q. 98. What means, he descended 
into Hell? 

A. It means, that as soon as Christ was 
dead, he descended into Limbo, to free 
the holy fathers who were there. 

Q. 99. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Acts ii. 24, 27. 'Christ being 
slain, God raised him up loosing the 
sorrows of hell, as it was foretold by the 
prophet,' Psalm xv. 10. 'Thou wilt not 
leave my soul in hell, nor wilt thou give 
thy Holy One to see corruption.' 

Q. too. What other proof have 

A. Ephes. iv. 8, 9. 'He ascending on high, 
hath led captivity captive; he gave gifts 
to men; and that he ascended,' what is it 
but because he descended into the lower 
parts of the earth? 

Q. 101. Did he not descend to 
purgatory to free such as were 

A. It is most probable he did according 
to 1 Pet. iii. 19, 20. 'Christ being dead, 
came in spirit; and preached to them 
also that were in prison, who had been 
incredulous in the days of Noah, when 
the ark was building.' 


Q. 102. What understand you by, 
on the third day he rose again 
from the dead? 

A. I understand, when Christ had been 
dead part of three days, on the third day, 
which was Sunday, he raised up his 
blessed body from the dead. 

Q. 103. Why did he not raise it 
again sooner? 

A. To testify that he was truly dead, and 
to fulfil the prophecies. 

Q. 104. Did he reassume all the 
parts of his body? 

A. He did, even to the last drop of his 
vital blood, and the very scattered hairs 
of his head. 

Q. 105. Why did he retain the 
stigmas and marks of the sacred 

A. To confound the incredulity of men, 
and to present them often to his Father, 
as a propitiation of our sins. 

Q. 106. What benefit have we by 
the resurrection? 

A. It confirms our faith and hope, that 
we shall rise again from death: 'For he 
who raised up Jesus will raise us also 
with Jesus.' 2 Cor. iv. 14. 

The Sixth Article 

Q. 107. WHAT is the sixth article? 

A. He ascended into heaven, sits on the 
right hand of God the Father Almighty. 

Q. 108. What means, He ascended 
into heaven? 

A. It means that when Christ had 
conversed forty days on earth with his 
disciples, after his resurrection, teaching 
them heavenly things, then he ascended 

triumphant into heaven, by his own 

Q. 109. From what place did he 

A. From the top of the Mount of Olivet, 
where the print of his blessed feet are 
seen to this day. 

Q. 110. Why from thence? 

A. That were he began to be humbled by 
his passion, there he might also begin to 
be exalted. 

Q. 111. Before whom did he 

A. Before his mother, apostles and 
disciples, Acts 1. 9, &c. 

Q. 112. In what manner did he 

A. Lifting up his hands, and blessing 

Q. 113. Why is it added, Into 

A. To draw our hearts to heaven after 
Him; 'If ye have risen with Christ, seek 
ye the things which are above.' Col. iii. 1. 

Q. 114. What understand you by, 
Sits at the right hand of God? 

A. I do not understand, that God the 
Father hath any hands, for he is 
incorporated, and a spirit: but that 
Christ is equal to his Father in power 
and majesty, as he is God; and that as 
man he is the highest created glory. 

The Seventh Article 

Q. 115. WHAT is the seventh 

A. From thence he will come to judge the 
living and the dead. 


Q. 116. What understand you by 
this article? 

A. I understand Christ will come at the 
last day from heaven, to judge all men 
according to their work. 

Q. 117. Does every man receive a 
particular judgment at his death? 

A. He doth, but in the general judgment 
we shall be judged not only in our souls, 
as at our death, but also in our bodies. 

Q. 118. Why is that necessary? 

A. That as Christ was openly rejected, so 
he may there be openly acknowledged to 
the great joy and glory of his friends, as 
also to the confusion of his enemies. 

Q. 119. How prove you that in the 
judgment all men shall receive 
according to their works? 

A. Out of 2 Cor. v. 10. 'We must all be 
manifested (saith St. Paul) before the 
judgment seat of Christ, that every one 
may receive the proper things of the 
body according as he hath done, 
whether good or evil.' And out of St. 
Matt. xvi. 27. 'The Son of man (saith out 
Lord) shall come in the glory of his 
Father, with his angels, and then he will 
render to every one according to his 

Q. 120. Is there any merit in our 
good works? 

A. There is, according to Apoc. xxii. 12. 
Behold I come quickly (saith the Lord) 
and my reward is with me; to render to 
every man according to his works.' 

Q. 121. In what place shall this 
judgment be made? 

A. In the Valley of Jehosaphat, as many 
suppose between Jerusalem and Mount 
of Olivet. 

Q. 122. How prove you this? 

A. By its conformity to that of the 
prophet. I will gather together all 
nations, I will send them into the Valley 
of Jehosaphat, and there will I plead 
with them upon my people, and my 
inheritance Israel,' Joel iii. 

Q. 123. What signs shall go before 

A. The sun and moon shall lose their 
lights, there shall be wars, plagues, 
famines, and earthquakes, in many 

Q. 124. In what manner will Christ 
come unto it? 

A. In great power and majesty, attended 
with legions of angels. 

Q. 125. Who are they that shall be 

A. The whole race and progeny of man. 

Q. 126. What are the things that 
shall be judged? 

A. Our thoughts, words, and works, even 
to the secrets of our souls. 

Q. 127. Who will accuse us? 

A. The Devils, and our own guilty 
consciences: in which all our thoughts, 
words and deeds shall presently appear, 
and be laid open to the whole world. 

Q. 128. How shall the just and 
reprobate be placed? 

A. The just shall be on the right; the 
reprobate on the left hand of the Judge. 

Q. 129. What shall be the sentence 
of the just? 

A. 'Come, O ye blessed of my Father, and 
receive ye the kingdom which is 
prepared for you, for I was hungry and 


ye gave me to eat, I was thirsty, and ye 
gave me to drink,' &c St. Matt. xxv. 35, 
36 . 

Q. 130. What shall be the sentence 
of the reprobate? 

A. 'Go ye cursed into eternal fire, which 
hath been prepared for the devil and his 
angels; for I was hungry, and ye gave me 
not to eat,' &c. the same chap. v. 41, 42. 
You see of what weight good works will 
be at that day. 

Q. 131. Why is it added, the living 
and the dead? 

A. To signify that Christ shall judge, not 
only such as are living at the time of his 
coming, but likewise all such as have 
been dead, from the creation of the 
world; as also by the living, are 
understood angels and saints, by the 
dead, devils and damned souls. 

The Eighth Article 

Q. 132. WHAT is the eight article? 

A. I believe in the Holy Ghost. 

Q. 133. Of what treats this article? 

A. Of the third Person of the blessed 
Trinity, in whom we also believe and put 
our trust, who proceeds from the Father 
and the Son, and is the self-same God 
with them, distinct in nothing but in 

Q. 134. How prove you that? 

A. Out of 1 John v. 7. 'There are three 
that give testimony in heaven, the 
Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, 
and these three are one.' 

Q. 135. Why is the name of the 
Holy Ghost appropriated to the 
third Person, since angels are all 
spirits and holy? 

A. Because he is such by excellency and 
essence, they only by participation. 

Q. 136. At least why should it not 
be common to the other two 

A. Because they are known by the proper 
names of Father and Son, but we have 
not any proper name for the Holy Ghost. 

Q. 137. In what forms has the Holy 
Ghost appeared unto man? 

A. In the form of a dove, to signify the 
purity and innocence which he caused in 
our souls; and in the form of a bright 
cloud, and fiery tongue, to signify the 
fire of charity, which he produced in our 
hearts, as also the gift of tongues; and 
hence it is, he is painted in these forms. 

The Ninth Article 

Q. 138. WHAT is the ninth article? 

A. I believe in the holy Catholic Church, 
the communion of saints. 

Q. 139. What understand you by 

A. I understand that Christ hath a 
church upon earth which he established 
in his own blood, and that he hath 
commanded us to believe that church, in 
all things appertaining to faith, and 
morals, Matt, xviii. 17. 

Q. 140. What kind of faith must we 
believe her with? 

A. With the same faith that we believe 
her Spouse the Son of God, that is, with 
divine faith, but with this difference 
among other, that we believe in God; but 
though we believe the church, yet we do 
not properly believe in the church. 

Q. 141. What is the church? 


A. It is the congregation of all the 
faithful under Jesus Christ, their 
invisible head, and his vicar upon earth, 
the Pope. 

Q. 142. What are the essential 
parts of the church? 

A. A Pope or supreme head, bishops, 
pastors, and laity. 

Q. 143. How prove you that 
bishops are of divine institution? 

A. Out of Acts xx. 28. Take heed unto 
yourselves, and to the whole flock, 
wherein the Holy Ghost hath placed you 
bishops, to rule the church of God, 
which he hath purchased with his own 

Q. 144. How believe you St. Peter, 
and the Pope his successor, to be 
the visible head of the church? 

A. First out of St. John xxi. 16, 17, and 
18, where Christ gave St. Peter (for a 
reward of his special faith and love) 
absolute power to feed and govern his 
whole flock, saying, Feed my Lambs, 
feed my lambs, feed my sheep; therefore 
the rest of the apostles were his sheep, 
and he their head or pastor. 

Secondly, out of St. Matt. xvi. 18, where 
Christ saith, Thou art Peter, and upon 
this Rock will I build my church. 
Therefore the rest of the apostles were 
built on him; and hence also it is, that in 
Scripture, St. Peter is still named first. 

Q. 145. What are the marks of the 
true church? 

A. Unity, sanctity, universality, and to be 

Q. 146. What mean you by the 
church's unity? 

A. That all her members live under one 
evangelical law, obey the same supreme 

head, and his magistrates profess the 
same faith, even to the last article, and 
use the same sacraments and sacrifices. 

Q. 147. How prove you out of 
Scripture that the church is one? 

A. 1 Cor. x. 17. Being many (saith St. 
Paul) we are one bread, one body, all 
who participate of one bread. 

Q. 148. Why may not a well- 
meaning person be saved in any 

A. Because there is but one Lord, one 
faith, one baptism, Ephes. iv. 5, and 
without (that one) faith, it is impossible 
to please God. Heb. xi. 6. 

Q. 149. What other reason have 
you for it? 

A. Because, as in a natural body, that 
part which has not a due connection to 
the heart or root, presently dies for want 
of continuity; so in the church (the 
mystical body of Christ) that man who 
has not a due subordination and 
connection to the head and common 
councils thereof, (that is, the Pope and 
general councils from whence under 
Christ we have our spiritual life and 
motion, as we are Christians,) must 
needs be dead, nor indeed 

can he be accounted a member of that 
mystical body. 

Q. 150. Who, I beseech you, are 
those who are not to be accounted 
members of the Church? 

A. All such as are not in the unity of the 
church, by a most firm belief of her 
doctrine, and due obedience to her 
pastors; as Jews, Turks, Heretics, &c. 

Q. 151. Why may not Heretics and 
Schismatics justly claim to be in 


the Unity of the Church and 
Members of Christ's body? 

A. Because Catholics can show to each 
sect of Heretics and Schismatics the 
time they began; the date of their 
separation from the Church: the name of 
the person or persons of their sect who 
first separated themselves, and the 
cause of their condemnation; whilst the 
Catholic Church always was from the 

Q. 152. What if a Protestant should 
tell you, that the difference 
between them and us, are not 
differences in fundamentals, or in 
faith, but in opinion only, and 
therefore do not exclude them out 
of unity of the Catholic Church? 

A. I should answer, they contradict 
themselves; for they accuse us of 
robbing God of his honour, in holding 
priestly absolutions from sins; in 
adoring Christ's body and blood, as 
really present in the eucharist, and 
holding the Pope's supremacy in things 
belonging to the spiritual government of 
the Church, also the infallibility of the 
Church and general councils, in 
delivering and defining points of faith, 
which are no matters of indifference, but 
high fundamentals. 

Q. 153. How do you prove all 
obstinate Innovators to be 

A. Because they wilfully stand out 
against the definitive sentence of the 
Church of God, and submit not to any 
tribunal appointed by Christ to decide 
religious controversies; but follow their 
own interpretation of the dead letter of 
the scriptures. 

Q. 154. And is not this the reason 
also why Protestants and all other 

sectarians are so divided in 
religious matters? 

A. Yes, it is; for how is it possible that 
people who imagine that there is no 
person or tribunal, or even the Church 
of God, infallible, for expounding the 
bible; people, who expound it each 
according to his respective fancy; 
people, who have no control over the 
erroneous interpretation of each other; 
how it is possible that such people would 
have the unity of faith, in the bond of 
peace; or that they be not tossed to and 
fro, and carried about with every wind of 

Q. 155. Why may not the letter of 
the Scripture be a decisive judge of 

A. Because it has never been able from 
it[s] first publication, to decide any one 
dispute; as the whole world knows from 
experience: all heretics equally pretend 
to scripture authority in defence of their 
errors and heresies. 

Q. 156. How then can we ascertain 
the truth amidst conflicting 

A. By the infallible authority, definition, 
and proposition of the Catholic Church. 

Q. 157. For what end, then, was the 
Scripture written, if not to be a 
decider of controversies? 

A. The writing of the Holy Scriptures 
was for the purpose of the better 
preserving the revealed will of God, and 
that by a sensible and common reading 
of it, without any critical or controversial 
disputes of words, we might be able to 
know that God is, and what he is, and 
also that there is a heaven and a hell, 
rewards for virtue and punishment for 
vice, with examples of both, all which we 


find in the letter of the Scripture, by a 
plain and ordinary reading. 

Q. 158. Is the church we speak of 

A. She is and must be visible at all times, 
as consisting of a hierarchy of pastors, 
governing, teaching, administering 
sacraments to the world's end, and of 
other people governed, taught and 
receiving sacraments at their hands, all 
publicly professing the same faith, all 
which things are visible. 

Q. 159. How prove you that? 

A. First, out of Eph. iv. 1, and 12. 'Christ 
gave some apostles, some evangelists, 
some doctors, some pastors, to the 
consummation of the saints, to the 
edifying of the body of Christ, and to the 
work of the ministry, until we all meet in 
the unity of faith.' 

Secondly, out of St. Matt. v. 14, where 
Christ saith of his church, "You are the 
light of the world, a city seated on a high 
mountain cannot be hid." 

Q. 160. Why then would the 
Protestants have the church to be 

A. Because we have convinced them, 
that there were no Protestants to be seen 
or heard of in the world before Martin 

Q. 161. Why is the church said to 
be holy, or to have sanctity? 

A. Because she hath a holy faith, a holy 
law, holy sacraments, and is guided by 
the Holy Ghost, to all truth and holiness. 

Q. 162. How else prove you her 

A. Because Christ gave himself for his 
church that he might sanctify her, 
cleansing her by the laver of water in the 

world, that he might present her to 
himself a glorious church, not having 
spot or wrinkle, but that she might be 
holy and unspotted. Eph. v. 26, 27. 

Q. 163. Notwithstanding the 
sanctity of the Catholic Church, 
are not some Catholics as wicked 
as Protestants? 

A. Yes, verily, and more wicked, for 
where sanctity is less, their sacrilege 
cannot be so great. No man could damn 
his own posterity, but he that had 
original justice to lose: nor any man to 
betray Christ, but he that had eaten at 
his table. Protestants have not a holy 
faith, such sacraments, nor a holy 
church to abuse, as Catholics have, and 
therefore no wonder, if some Catholics 
be worse than any Protestants; yet 
Catholics have some saints, but 
Protestants have none. 

Q. 164. Is the church infallible? 

A. She is, and therefore to be believed, 
and all men may rest securely on her 

Q. 165. How prove you that? 

A. First, because she is the pillar and 
ground of truth 1 Tim. iii. 15. 

Secondly, out of St. Matt. xvi. 18, where 
Christ saith, "Upon this Rock will I build 
my church, and the gates of hell shall 
not prevail against her." 

Thirdly, out of St. John, xiv. 26. But the 
Paraclete, (saith he,) the Holy Ghost, 
shall teach you all things whatsoever I 
shall say to you. And xvi. 13. But when 
the Spirit of truth cometh, he shall teach 
you all truth. 

Q. 166. How declare you that the 
definitions of a council perfectly 
ecumenical, that is, a general 


council approved by the Pope, are 
infallible in matters of faith? 

A. Because such a council is the church 
representative, and has the same 
infallibility that the church spread over 
the world hath. 

Q. 167. What other reason have 

A. Because of the definitions of such a 
council are the dictates of the Holy 
Ghost, according to that of the apostles, 
deciding in council, it hath seemed good 
to the Holy Ghost, and to us, Acts xv. 28. 

Q. 168. What think you then of 
such as accuse the church of 
errors in faith and idolatry? 

A. Truly I think them to be Heretics or 
Infidels, for our Lord saith, He that will 
not hear the church let him be unto thee 
as a heathen and a publican, St. Matt, 
xviii. 17. 

Q. 169. Is not the church at least 
too severe in its censures and 
excommunications against 

A. No, she is very reasonable and 
charitable in them for vicious, 
passionate, and self-interested men 
some times are brought to reason for 
fear of punishment and are forced to 
their own good, when no authority 
ordained by Christ is able to persuade 
them to it. 

Q. 170. What understood you by 
the word catholic, or by the 
universality of the church? 

A. I understand the church is universal, 
both for time and place. 

Q. 171. How for time? 

A. Because she hath been from Christ to 
this time, and shall be from thence to 
the end of the world. 

Q. 172. How prove you that? 

A. Out of St. Matt, xxviii. 20. Going 
therefore (saith our Lord) teach ye all 
nations, &c. and behold I am with you 
all days, even to the consummation of 
the world. 

Q. 173. What mean you by the 
universality of place? 

A. First, out of St. Matt, above cited, 
Teach all nations. 

Secondly out of Psalm lxxxv. 9. All 
Nations, whatsoever thou hast made, 
shall come and adore before thee, O 

Thirdly, out of Apoc. vii. 9, where we 
read, that the church shall be gathered 
out of all nations, people, tribes, and 

Q. 174. Why do we call the church 
the Roman Church? 

A. Because, since the transition of St. 
Peter's chair from Antioch to Rome, the 
particular Roman Church has been head 
of all the churches, and to her the 
primacy has been affixed. 

Q. 175. What is the rule by which 
the church preserves entire the 
deposit of Faith and confounds all 

A. Apostolical traditions, or receipt of 
doctrine by hand to hand from Christ 
and his apostles. 

Q. 176. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Rom. vi. 17. "Therefore I 
beseech you, brethren (saith St. Paul) 
mark them which make dissensions and 
scandals, contrary to the doctrine which 


you have learned, and avoid them, for 
such do not serve Christ our Lord." 

Q. 177. What other proofs have 

A. Out of St. Paul, saying, "But although 
we or an angel from heaven evangelize 
to you, besides that which we have 
evangelized to you, be he anathema, or 
besides, what you have received be he 
anathema." Gal. i. 8, 9. 

Q. 178. Can the church err in faith, 
standing to this rule, and 
admitting nothing for faith, but 
what is consented by the whole 
church to have been so received? 

A. She cannot, otherwise the whole 
church must there conspire in a 
notorious he, to damn herself and her 
posterity, or else she must be ignorant 
what hath been taught for her faith by 
the church of the precedent age, which 
are both natural impossibilities. 

Q. 179. How prove you these to be 
impossibilities by nature? 

A. By the constancy and immutability of 
contingent causes, whose particulars 
may be defective, but the universals 

Q. 180. Explain that a little. 

A. Because one man or two or three may 
be born but with one arm, or one eye 
only, through defect of their particular 
causes; but that all nature should fail at 
once, and all men be so born, is totally 
impossible in nature; in like manner, 
one man or two may conspire in 
palpable lies to damn themselves and 
their posterity, or be deceived in what 
hath been taught them for faith, from 
their very cradles; but that the whole 
church should so far break with the 
nature of man (which is reason) to 

conspire in such a lie, or to be so 
mistaken, is as impossible in nature, as 
it is for men to be no men. 

Q. 181. May some errors have been 
received for faith, and crept 
insensibly over the whole church, 
no man perceiving or taking notice 
of them? 

A. No, that is as impossible as that the 
plague or burning fever should infect or 
spread itself over a whole kingdom for 
many years, no man perceiving it, or 
seeking to prevent it; for nothing causes 
greater notice to be taken, than any 
public or notorious change in matters of 

Q. 182. May not the power of 
temporal princes, or the over 
prevalency of human wit and 
reason, have introduced errors 
into the church? 

A. Neither is that possible, seeing we are 
not regulated in things which are of 
faith, either by power, or any strength of 
reason, but by the rule of apostolical 
tradition, and by inquiring of the whole 
church of every age, what hath been 
taught by our forefathers, from Christ 
and his apostles. 

Q. 183. Was not the Millenary 
heresy an apostolical tradition? 

A. No, it was not; for there is no 
assurance or consent among those who 
write of it, that it was ever preached or 
delivered by the apostles. 

Q. 184. Did not St. Austin and 
Innocentius, with their councils, 
hold the communion of children a 
thing necessary to their salvation? 

A. They speak not of sacramental 
communion, as is evident to all who 
have read their works, but of the effect 


of it, that is, of their incorporation into 
the mystical body of Christ, which is 
made in baptism, and this only they 
affirmed to be necessary to their 

Q. 185. At least do not heretics say 
and aver, that the church hath 
apostatized and erred in faith? 

A. They do indeed, but it will not serve 
their turn barely to say it, unless they 
were also able to prove it, (which they 
neither are or will be) by evident and 
undeniable proofs. 

Q. 186. How prove you that? 

A. First, because that presumption and 
possession of her integrity and 
infallibility is on the church's side; and 
therefore ought not to be yielded up, 
without clear evidence of her 

Secondly, because he that accuses his 
neighbour's wife of adultery, without 
convincing proof thereof, is not to be 
hearkened unto, but to be hated by all 
good men, as a most infamous 
slanderer; much more ought they who 
shall accuse the church, the spouse of 
Christ, of errors and apostasy, unless 
their proofs be evident and undeniable, 
to be detested as blasphemous heretics. 

Thirdly, because if less than manifest 
and convincing evidence be sufficient to 
prove matters of this high nature, it is 
not impossible but every false tongue 
shall set dissensions between man and 
wife, and stir up the most faithful 
subjects in the world to a rebellion 
against their princes, both spiritual and 

Q. 187. What other reason have 
you yet, why the church and law of 
Christ may not fail and be utterly 

A. Because the causes of religion (to wit, 
the hope of good, and fear of evil from 
God) are universal and necessary, 
always knocking at men's hearts, and 
putting them in mind of some good or 
other, and therefore must needs have 
perpetual and necessary effects, which 
in such as are convinced that Christ is 
God, can be no other than the faith, 
hope and love of Christ, and the 
observance of his law, and that for ever, 
speaking of the whole church, although 
particular men may err and fall away. 

Q. 188. What is it for the church to 
be apostolical? 

A. To have been begun and propagated 
by the apostles, and to have a succession 
of pastors, and doctrines from them. 

Q. 189. What means the 
communion of saints? 

A. It means first that the faithful do all 
communicate in the same faith and 
sacraments, in the same sacrifice, and 
also in the merits of one another. 

Q. 190. How prove you that? 

A. Out of 1 Cor. xii. 26. And if one 
member suffer any thing, all the 
members suffer with it; or if one 
member do glory, all the members 
rejoice with it, you are the body of 
Christ, and members of a member. 

Secondly, It means that the faithful on 
earth communicate with the angels and 
the saints in heaven; we by praising and 
praying to them, they by praying for us. 

Q. 191. How do you prove this 

A. Out of Luke xv. 10. There is joy before 
the angels of God upon one sinner that 
doth penance. And out of 1 John i. 3, 
That you also may have fellowship with 


us, and our fellowship may be with the 
Father and with his Son Jesus Christ. 

Q. 192. How prove you that the 
saints have any power to do us 

A. Out of Apoc. ii. 26, 27, where Christ 
hath promised them power over us: to 
him, said he, that shall overcome, and 
keep my works to the end, to him will I 
give power over nations, and he shall 
rule them with an iron rod. 

Q. 193. How prove you that it is 
lawful to pray to angels? 

A. Out of Apoc. i. 4, where St. John did 
it: Grace (saith he) to you, and peace 
from him that is, that was, and that shall 
come, and from the seven spirits that are 
in the sight of his throne. 

Q. 194. What other proof have 

A. Out of Apoc. viii. 4, where we read, 
that they present the church's prayers to 
God. The smoke of the incense of the 
prayers of the saints ascend from the 
hand of the angel before God. 

Q. 195. How prove you that we may 
pray to saints? 

A. Out of Gen. xlvii, 16, where Jacob 
taught his children to do it, saying, And 
let my name be invocated upon them, 
the names also of my fathers, Abraham 
and Isaac. How prove you that they pray 
for us? 

A. Out of Apoc. v. 8. The twenty-four 
elders fell down before the Lamb, having 
every one harps, and vials full of odours, 
which are the prayers of the saints. 

Q. 196. Is it no dishonour to God, 
for us to pray to saints to pray for 

A. No, it is not, nor yet to beg it of men; 
for St. Paul did it: We hope (saith he) 
that God will deliver us, you also helping 
in prayer for us. 2 Cor. i. 11. 

The Tenth Article 

Q. 197. WHAT is the tenth article? 

A. The forgiveness of sins. 

Q. 198. What do you understand by 

A. I understand that God is both able 
and willing to forgive our sins, if we be 
heartily sorry for them, and confess 
them; and have given power to his 
church to remit them by baptism and 

Q. 199. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Matt. ix. 8, where it is recorded 
by the Holy Ghost, that the multitude 
glorified God, who hath given such 
power unto man, as to forgive sins, 
(Christ having before proved the said 
power by a miracle) ver. 6, 7. 

Q. 200. Is any sin so great that God 
cannot forgive it? 

A. No there is not; for his mercy is far 
above our malice. 

Q. 201. Can any one mortal sin be 
remitted without the rest? 

A. It cannot, because the remission of 
mortal sin is a renewing of friendship 
with God by his grace, which can never 
be effected, so long as there remains in 
us any mortal sin. 

Q. 202. Can we have absolute 
certainty, that our sins are 
forgiven us? 

A. Without special revelation we cannot: 
I am not guilty in conscience (saith St. 


Paul) of any thing, but herein I am not 
justified, l Cor. iv. 4. 

Q. 203. What other proof have 

A. Because a man knows not whether he 
be worthy of love or hatred. Eccl. i. 9. 

Q. 204. Can we be certain of our 
final perseverance? 

A. Not without special revelation, and 
therefore St. Paul said, I chastise my 
body and bring it into subjection, lest 
when I preach to others I myself become 
a reprobate, 1 Cor. ix. 27, and Phil. ii. 12. 
He exhorts, saying, with fear and 
trembling, work out your salvation. 

Q. 205. How then shall we have 
peace of conscience? 

A. Because we may have moral certainty 
and a most lively hope, that our sins are 
forgiven by us by the due use of the 
sacraments, which is enough for our 

The Eleventh Article 

Q. 206. WHAT is the eleventh 

A. The resurrection of the flesh. 

Q. 207. What means this article? 

A. It means that these very bodies in 
which we now live, shall at the day of 
judgment be all raised up from death to 

Q. 208. By what means shall this 
be done? 

A. By the omnipotent command of God, 
and the ministry of angels. 

Q. 209. How prove you that? 

A. Out of 1 Thess. iv. 16. For our Lord in 
commandment, and in the voice of an 

archangel, and in the trumpet of God, 
will descend from heaven, and the dead 
that are in Christ shall rise again. 

Q. 210. Shall the same bodies rise 

A. The same in substance, though 
different in qualities. 

Q. 211. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Job xix. 25, 26, 27. For I know 
that my Redeemer liveth, and in the last 
day I shall rise out of the earth, and shall 
be compassed again with my skin, and 
in my flesh I shall see God, whom I 
myself shall see, and mine eyes shall 
behold, and not another. 

Q. 212. What shall be the qualities 
or doweries of a glorified body? 

A. Impassability, agility, clarity, 

Q. 213. How do you prove its 
impassability, or incorruptibility? 

A. Out of 1 Cor. xv. 53. For this 
corruptible must put on incorruption, 
and this mortal must put on 

Q. 214. How prove you its agility? 

A. Out of the same chapter, ver. 43, 44. 

It is sown in infirmity, it shall rise in 
power; it is sown a natural body, but it 
shall rise in a spiritual body, (that is, in 
motion, and some operations equal to a 
spirit;) which also proves its subtility. 

Q. 215. How prove you it clarity? 

A. Out of the same chapter, ver. 24 "For 
star (said he) differs from star in glory, 
so also the resurrection of the dead." 
And ver. 43. "It is sown in dishonour, it 
shall rise in glory." 


Q. 216. In what space of time shall 
the dead rise, and the elect be thus 

A. "In a moment, in the twinkling of an 
eye," 1 Cor. xv, 52. 

Q. 217. At what age and stature 
shall men rise? 

A. At a perfect age, which is thirty-three, 
and in that stature which they should 
have had at a perfect age, without 
deformity by defect or excess. 

Q. 218. How prove you this? 

A. Out of Ephes. iv. 13. "The church shall 
last until we all meet into a perfect may, 
into the measure of the age of the 
fulness of Christ." 

Q. 219. What example have you in 
nature for the resurrection? 

A. A grain of corn, which first rots in the 
earth and then springs up and lives 

Q. 220. What benefit have we by 
the knowledge of the resurrection? 

A. It emboldens us to suffer persecution 
and death itself, in hope of future glory, 
according to that of St. Paul: "For 
sufferings of these times are not 
comparable to that of future glory, 
which be revealed in us:" Rom. viii. 18. 

The Twelfth Article 

Q. 221. WHAT is the twelfth 

A. And life everlasting. 

Q. 222. Why is this the last article? 

A. Because everlasting life is the last end 
of man, and the last reward we expect by 

Q. 223. What understand you by 
this article? 

A. I understand that such as keep the 
commandments, and die in the state of 
grace, shall live with God in bliss 

Q. 224. How prove you that 
keeping the commandments is of 
necessity for obtaining it? 

A. Out of Matt. xix. 17, where Christ said 
to the young man, asking what he 
should do to obtain it, "If thou wilt enter 
into life, keep the commandments." 

Q. 225. Is everlasting life given as a 
reward of our good works? 

A. It is, according to Rom. ii. 6, 7. "God 
will render to every one according to his 
works, to them truly, that according to 
patience in good works, seek glory and 
honour, and incorruption life 
everlasting" &c. 

Q. 226. Were all men created for 
everlasting life? 

A. They were, for God "would have all 
men to be saved," 1 Tim. ii. 4. "He 
willeth not the death of any sinner, but 
rather that he be converted and live." 
Ezek. xxxiii. 11. 

Q. 227. Why then are many 

A. By reason of their own wilful 
transgression of God's law, and final 

Q. 228. How prove you that man is 
the free cause of his own sin and 

A. First out of Job xi. 23. "God (saith he) 
hath given him place for penance, but he 
abuseth it unto pride." 


Secondly, out of Hos. xiii. 9. "The 
perdition is from thyself, O Israel; in me 
only is thy aid." 

Thirdly, out of Rom. ii. 4. "The benignity 
of God calls thee to repentance, but thou 
heapest to thyself wrath and 
indignation, according to thy own 
impenitent heart." 

Q. 229. In what consists 
everlasting life? 

A. In the clear vision and fruition of 
God, according to that of our Saviour, in 
John xvii. 3. "This is the life everlasting, 
that they know thee the only true God, 
and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent." 

Q. 230. Shall we see nothing in 
Heaven but God? 

A. Yes, all the attributes and perfections 
of God, and in him also, as in a mirror or 

looking glass, the nature and perfections 
of all creatures; for he contains all things 
in himself in the most eminent manner. 

Q. 231. How prove you that? 

A. Out of the apostle, saying, "from 
whom all things by whom all things, and 
in whom all things." Rom xi. 36. 

Q. 232. What effect will follow out 
the clear vision and fruition of 

A. A divine love, steadfast possession 
and ineffable joy; and out of that praise, 
jubilation, and thanksgiving for ever. 

Q. 233. What means the word 

A. It means that the whole creed is 
divine truth, and therefore we most 
heartily assent to it. 

Chapter 4. 

Hope and Prayer Explained 

Q. 234. WHAT is Hope? 

A. It is a virtue infused by God into the 
soul, by which we have a confident 
expectation of glory to be obtained by 
the grace and merits of Christ, and our 
own merits proceeding from his grace. 

Q. 235. On what is the confidence 
chiefly grounded? 

A. On the merits and promises of Christ, 
who hath promised glory to such as 
hope in him, and do his works, as also 
grace whereby to do them. 

Q. 236. Are our good works then 
meritorious of a reward of glory? 

A. As proceeding from the grace of 
Christ, and built upon his promises, they 

Q. 237. How prove you that? 

A. First, out of Mark ix. 14. "For 
whosoever shall give you to drink a cup 
of water in my name because you are 
Christ's, Amen, I say to you, he shall not 
lose his reward." 

Secondly, out of 1 Cor. iii. 8. "And every 
one shall receive his own reward, 
according to his own labour, for we are 
God's coadjutors." 


Thirdly, out of Matt. v. n. "Blessed are 
ye (saith our Lord) when they shall 
revile and persecute you; for very great 
is your reward in heaven." 

Q. 238. Is it lawful for us to do 
good works in the hope of a 

A. Not only lawful but laudable, 
according to that, I "have inclined by 
heart, to do thy justifications for ever, 
for a reward." Psalm cxviii. 12. 

Q. 239. What other proof have 

A. Out of 1 John iii. 22. "Whatsoever 
(saith he) we shall ask of God, we shall 
receive of him, because we keep his 
commandments, and do those things 
that are pleasing before him." 

Q. 240. How declare you the 
necessity of hope? 

A. Because it produces in us obedience 
to the law of God, as also a willingness to 
suffer for his sake, and final 

Q. 241. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Job xiii. 15. "Although he kill 
me, yet will I hope in him." And Psalm 
lv. 5. "In God have I hoped, I will not 
fear what flesh can do unto me." 

It is according to the Psalmist, "Him 
that hopeth in our Lord, merely shall 
encompass." Psalm xxxi. 10. And, "Our 
Lord is well pleased in them that hope in 
his mercy." Psalm cxlvi. 11. 

Q. 242. What other good doth 

A. It moves us to devout and humble 

Q. 243. What is prayer? 

A. It is the lifting up of the mind to God, 
by which we beg for good things and to 
be free from evils, or by which we bless 
and praise God. 

Q. 244. What are the conditions of 
good prayer? 

A. That it may be made with reverence, 
attention, humility, and perseverance. 

Q. 245. What vices are opposite to 

A. Despair and presumption. 

Q. 246. What is despair? 

A. It is a diffidence in the mercy of God, 
and merits of Christ, even to death. 

Q. 247. What is presumption? 

A. It is a foolish and desperate 
confidence of salvation, without 
endeavouring to live well or keep the 

Q. 248. How is the despair the 
cause of sin? 

A. Because despairing men are wont to 
say, if I shall be damned, I shall be 
damned, and so use no endeavour to do 
good or avoid evil. 

Q. 249. How is presumption the 
cause of sin? 

A. Because presumptuous men used to 
say, God is merciful and will forgive our 
sins, how great soever, and at what time 
soever, we do penance; and out of this 
take liberty to sin. 

Q. 250. How must our hope be 
balanced between these two 

A. By a filial fear, and an humble 
distrust of our own works, as they are 


Q. 251. Is prayer good against both 

A. It is, according to that of Luke xxii. 

40, "pray ye that so ye may not fall into 

Q. 252. For what else availeth 

A. For the avoiding of evils and the 
obtaining all benefits. 

Q. 253. How prove you that? 

A. Out of John xv 23. "Whatsoever (saith 
our Saviour) ye shall ask my Father in 
my name, he will give it you." And Luke 
xi. 9. "Ask and it shall be given you," &c. 

Q. 254. Is it lawful to pray in an 
unknown tongue? 

A. It is, "for he that speaks in a tongue 
(unknown) speaks not to men but to 
God." 1 Cor. xiv. 2. And a petition has 
the same force if it be understood by 
him that is petitioned, whether the 
petitioner understood it or not. 

Q. 255. What other proof have 

A. Out of the same chap. ver. 16, 17, 
where Paul saith, "but if thou bless in 
spirit, (that is in a tongue not known) he 
that supplieth the place of the vulgar, 
how shall he say Amen, &c. thou indeed 
givest thanks well, but the other is not 
edified." You see in itself the thing is 
good, for he gives thanks well. 

Q. 256. What means the apostle, 
when he exhorts us to pray 
always? Thess. v. 17. 

A. He means we should daily spend 
some time to prayer, according to James 
v. 16. "Pray for one another that you may 
be saved, for the continual prayer of a 
just man availeth much." 

Q. 257. Is it possible to pray 

A. In some sense it is: namely, by 
offering up all our actions to God's 

Q. 258. In what place is prayer 

A. In churches: because these are places 
consecrated and devoted to prayer, and 
there our prayers are elevated by the 
peculiar presence of God, and his special 
assistance besought by the Church's 
pastors in the consecration of those 

Q. 259. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Matt, xviii. 20. "Where there 
are two or three gathered together in my 
name (saith the Lord) there I am in the 
midst of them." 

Q. 260. How prove you that 
material churches are of God's 

A. First, Because God commanded 
Solomon to build him a temple, and 
dedicate it to his service. 2 Paral vii. 12. 

Secondly, out of Luke xix. 46, where 
Christ calls the material temple his 
house, casing the buyers and sellers out 
of it. "My house, (saith he) is the house 
of prayer, but you have made it a den of 

Thirdly, out of Luke xviii. 10, where the 
publican "ascended to the temple to 
pray, and descended into his house 

Q. 261. How do you prove it lawful 
to dedicate of consecrate material 

A. Out of Paralip. above cited, chap. 7, 
and out of John x. 22, where it is 
recorded that Christ himself kept the 


dedication of the temple in Jerusalem, 
instituted by Judas Maccabseus, l Mac. 
iv. 56, 59- 

Q. 262. How do you prove it lawful 
to adorn the churches with 
tapestry, pictures, and the like? 

A. Out of Mark, xiv. 15, where Christ 
commanded his last supper to be 
prepared in a great chamber adorned. 

Q. 263. What proof have you for 
the order and number of the 
canonical hours? 

A. For Matins, Lauds, and Prime, that of 
Psalm v. 4 "Early in the morning will I 
stand up to thee, early in the morning 
wilt thou hear my voice." 

Q. 264. What for the third, sixth 
and ninth hours? 

A. For the third out of Acts ii. 16. "At the 
third hour the Holy Ghost descended on 
the Apostles." For the sixth, out of Acts 
x. 9. "Peter and John went up into the 
higher part to pray about the sixth 
hour:" and for the ninth, out of Acts iii. 

1. "And at the ninth hour 

Peter and John went up into the temple 
to pray." 

Q. 265. What for the Even-song 
and Compline? 

A. That of the Psalmist, "Morning and 
evening, will I declare the works of our 

Lord," Psalm liv. 18. and again, "lifting 
up of my hands is as an evening 
sacrifice," cxli 2. 

Q. 266. Is it good to use outward 
ceremonies in a time of prayer, as 
kneeling, knocking the breast, and 
such like? 

A. It is, for they declare the inward 
reverence and devotion of the heart; and 
Christ himself prostrated, when he 
prayed in the garden, Matt. xxvi. 39. 

And the poor publican beat his breast, 
and cast down his eyes in that prayer by 
which he merited to descend justified, 
Luke xviii. 13, 14. 

Q. 267. Why is the morning so fit a 
time for prayer? 

A. To open the windows of the soul to 
the light of divine grace and offer up the 
works of the whole day to God's honour. 

Q. 268. Why is the evening also? 

A. To shut the windows of the soul 
against the darkness of sin, and the 
illusions of the devil; as also to render 
thanks for all the benefits of the day 

Q. 269. What things ought we to 
pray for? 

A. For all good things both spiritual and 
temporal, and to be freed from evil; for 
so our Lord bath taught us by his prayer. 

Chapter 5. 

The Lord’s Prayer Expounded 

Q. 270. WHAT is the Pater Noster? 

A. It is the most holy prayer, that ever 

Q. 271. Who made it? 

A. Christ our Lord, the eternal wisdom 
of his Father, Matt. vi. 9. 


Q. 272. Why did he make it? 

A. To teach us a set form of prayer, and 
how we ought to pray. 

Q. 273. Why did he make it in so 
short and plain a manner? 

A. That all persons might be able to 
understand and practise it. 

Q. 274. What doth it contain? 

A. All those chief things which we can 
ask or hope for of God. 

Q. 275. How many petitions does it 

A. Seven. 

Q. 276. What understand you by 
these words, which are prefixed to 
the petition, Our Father who art in 

A. I understand that God is our Father, 
both by creation and by adoption: and if 
we be in the state of grace, we may 
confidently come to him, and beg all 
blessings of him. 

Q. 277. How prove you that? 

A. Out of 1 John iii. 1. "See what manner 
of charity the Father hath given us, that 
we should be named, and be the sons of 

Q. 278. Why do you say, our 
Father, and not my Father? 

A. Because God is the common Father of 
all, and all good Christians must pray for 
one another, according to the article in 
the Creed. "I believe in the communion 
of saints." 

Q. 279. What understand you by 
the words, Who art in heaven? 

A. I understand that God who fills 
heaven and earth, and is in all things, 

times, and places, is in heaven in a 
peculiar manner, declaring and 
manifesting his glory to the blessed; and 
therefore when we pray, we must lift up 
our minds to him, and keep them fixed 
upon heavenly things. 

Q. 280. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Jer. xlviii. 10. "Cursed be he 
that doth the word of God negligently." 

The First Petition 

Q. 281. WHAT is the first petition? 

A. Hallowed be thy name. 

Q. 282. What do we beg by this? 

A. That God may be known by the whole 
world, and that he may be worthily 
praised, served, and honoured by all his 
creatures, which cannot be effected but 
by his grace. 

Q. 283. Who are these that say this 
petition ill? 

A. Such as dishonour the name of God 
by blaspheming, swearing, lying, 
cursing, and scurrilous disclosures. 

The Second Petition 

Q. 284. WHAT is the second 

A. Thy kingdom come. 

Q. 285. What do we beg of God by 
this petition? 

A. We beg, that our miseries and 
afflictions in this life may be such, as 
that we may be made partakers of his 
joyful and heavenly kingdom hereafter. 

Q. 286. What else do we beg? 

That Christ may reign in us in this life by 
grace, and in the next by glory, 
presenting us a kingdom to his Father. 


Q. 287. Who say this petition ill? 

A. Such as are willing slaves to sin, and 
to the devil. 

The Third Petition 

Q. 288. WHAT is the third 

A. Thy will be done on earth as it is in 

Q. 289. What do we beg by this? 

A. That God would enable us by his holy 
grace to keep his commandments, and 
obey his will in all things. 

Q. 290. What mean you by the 
words, on earth as it is in heaven? 

A. We beg by those, that we may be as 
ready and willing to do the will of God 
on earth, as the blessed saints and 
angels are in heaven. 

The Fourth Petition 

Q. 291. WHAT is the fourth 

A. Give us this day our daily bread. 

Q. 292. What do we beg by this? 

A. All food and nourishment for our 
souls and bodies. 

Q. 293. What is the food of the 

A. The word of God, the holy 
sacraments, especially the blessed 
Eucharist, and divine grace. 

Q. 294. How prove you, that by this 
petition Christ intended the 
blessed bread of the Eucharist? 

A. Because in Matt. vi. 11, we read "our 
supersubstantial bread." 

Q. 295. Why is the Eucharist called 
our daily bread? 

A. Because it is daily offered for our sins 
on the altar, and we ought daily to 
receive it, at least in spirit and desire. 

Q. 296. Who say this petition ill? 

A. Such as are cold and careless in 
coming to the sacraments, and in 
hearing divine service, or exhortations; 
and such as ascribe their temporal goods 
and blessings to their own industry and 
providence, and not to any special 
bounty or gift of God. 

The Fifth Petition 

Q. 297. WHAT is the fifth petition? 

A. And forgive us our debts, as we 
forgive our debtors. 

Q. 298. What do we beg by this 

A. That God would pardon us the sins of 
our life past, as also the punishments 
which are due unto them. 

Q. 299. Why are sins, and the 
penalties of sin, called debts? 

A. Because they make us debtors to the 
justice of God, whom by sin we rob of 
his due honour. 

Q. 300. Why is it added, As we 
forgive our debtors? 

A. To signify that God will not forgive us, 
unless we also forgive our brethren; "If 
you will not forgive men, neither will 
your Father forgive you your offences." 
Matt. vi. 15. 

Q. 301. Who say this petition ill? 

A. Such as bear malice against their 
neighbour, and seek revenge. 


The Sixth Petition 

Q. 302. WHAT is the sixth 

A. And lead us not into temptation. 

Q. 303 * What do we beg by this? 

A. That God would not permit us to be 
tempted above our strength. 

Q. 304. Doth God tempt any man 
to sin? 

A. No, "God is not a tempter of evils, he 
tempts no man." James i. 13. 

Q. 305. What other proof have 

A. Out of Ps. v. 7 "Thou art not a God 
willing iniquity." And out of Rom. ix. 14. 
"Is there iniquity with God? No, God 

Q. 306. By whom then are we 

A. By the devil, and our own 

Q. 307. Can a man live in this 
world, and be free from all 

A. Morally speaking he cannot: "for the 
whole life of man on earth is a warfare." 
Job vii. 1. 

Q. 308. Why then do we pray to be 
delivered from temptation? 

A. That we may not be overcome, or 
vanquished by them. 

Q. 309. Is temptation of itself a 

A. No, not without consent on our part; 
nay, it is a great occasion of merit, if we 
resist it as we ought. 

Q. 310. How prove you that? 

A. First, out of Apoc. ii. 10, 11. "Be thou 
faithful unto death (saith our Lord) and 
I will give thee the crown of life: he that 
overcometh, shall not be hurt by the 
second death." Secondly, because Christ 
himself, who never sinned, would be 
tempted, "and the tempter came unto 
him." &c. Matt. iv. 3. 

Q. 311. Are we never overcome by 
our own default? 

A. Never, according to that answer 
which was given to St. Paul, desiring to 
be freed from a temptation "My grace is 
sufficient for thee." 

Q. 312. What other proof have 

A. Out of James iv. 7. "Resist the devil, 
and he will flee from you." 

Q. 313. Who are they that say this 
petition ill? 

A. Such as seek after occasion of sin, and 
wilfully expose themselves unto 

Q. 314. What are the best remedies 
against temptations? 

A. To have recourse by humble prayer to 
God and to his saints, and to such 
especially as have undergone 
temptations of the same kind; to resist 
them valiantly at the first entrance, and 
to remember often the four last things, 
death, judgment, hell, and heaven. 

The Seventh Petition 

Q. 315. WHAT is the seventh 

A. But deliver us from evil. 

Q. 316. What do we beg by this 


A. That God would deliver us from all 
our evils both spiritual and temporal, 
especially from the evils of sin past, 
present, and to come. 

Q. 317. Who is the author of the 
evil sin? 

A. The devil; for "Sin in God there is 
none." 1 John iii. 5. 

Q. 318. What other proof have 

A. Out of Wisdom xiv. 9. "Hateful to God 
is the impious man and his impiety." 

Q. 319. Who say this petition ill? 

A. They who commit their evils before 
God, and multiply their sins without 

Chapter 6. 

The Hail Mary, or Angelical Salutation 

Q. 320. WHAT is the Hail Mary? 

A. It is a most honourable salutation to 
the blessed Virgin Mary, and prayer to 

Q. 321. How do your prove it 
lawful to honour her? 

A. Out of Luke i. 48, where (by 
inspirations from God; she prophesied, 
saying, "All generations shall call me 

Q. 322. How may parts hath the 
Hail Mary? 

A. It hath three parts. 

The First Part of the 
Hail Mary 

Q. 323. What is the first part? 

A. Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is 
with thee. 

Q. 324. Who made this part? 

A. The Holy Ghost, though it was 
delivered by the angel Gabriel, Luke i. 

Q. 325. What signifies the word 

A. It signifies, Rejoice or be glad, O 
Mother of God. 

Q. 326. Why do we invite her by 
this prayer to rejoice? 

A. Because it renews the memory of her 
blessed Son's conception, which is an 
infinite cause of joy to her and the whole 
court of heaven. 

Q. 327. What signifies the word 

A. It signifies star of the sea. 

Q. 328. Why is she properly called 
the star of the sea? 

A. Because she shines on us by her 
exemplary virtue in this sea of miseries, 
like a most glorious star. 

Q. 329. What mean you by the 
words, full of grace? 

A. I mean that the Blessed Virgin hath a 
special fullness and prerogative of grace 
for the conception of her Son. 

Q. 330. What means, The Lord is 
with thee? 


A. It means that the whole Trinity was 
with her at the time in a particular 

Q. 331. How declare you that? 

A. Because the Father was with her, as 
with his Spouse, the Son as with his 
Mother, the Holy Ghost was with her, as 
with his choicest tabernacle. 

Q. 332. Are they also now with 

A. They are in glory, and will be so for all 

The Second Part of the 
Hail Mary 

Q. 333 * WHAT is the second part of 

A. Blessed art thou among women, 
blessed is the fruit of thy womb, JESUS. 

Q. 334. Who made this part? 

A. These words, Blessed art thou among 
women, were first delivered by the 
angel; and after with the rest, uttered by 
St. Elizabeth, being inspired by the Holy 
Ghost. Luke i. 28, 42. 

Q. 335. What understand you by 
Blessed art thou among women? 

A. I understand, she alone was chosen 
out amongst all women to be the Mother 
of God, and therefore ought to be 
blessed and praised by all women. 

Q. 336. Why by married women? 

A. Because their children are made the 
sons of God by the nativity and merits of 
her Son, of whom she daily also begs 
blessings for them. 

Q. 337. Why by virgins? 

A. Because she is their queen and 
chiefest patroness, and obtains for them 
of her Son Jesus, the gift of chastity. 

Q. 338. Why by widows? 

A. Because she is their best example, 
and advocate to their Spouse, her Son. 

Q. 339. What means, Blessed is the 
fruit of thy womb, Jesus? 

A. It means, that Jesus is her true and 
natural Son, and in him she is the 
author of all our blessings, and to be 
blessed both by men and angels. 

Q. 340. Why are Catholics such 
great honourers of the name 

A. Because it is a name above all names, 
as you have heard in the creed; and as 
St. Paul exhorts, saying "all whatsoever 
you do in word or work, do all in the 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ, giving 
thanks to God the Father by him." Colos. 
iii. 17. 

The Third Part of the 
Hail Mary 

Q. 341. WHAT is the third part of 
the Hail Mary? 

A. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for 
us sinners, now, and in the hour of our 
death. Amen. 

Q. 342. Who made this part? 

A. The holy Catholic Church in the 
Council of Ephesus, the year of our Lord 
431, (Pope Celestine presiding,) against 
Nestorius, the heretic, who denied our 
blessed Lady to be the Mother of God, 
and would only have her called the 
Mother of Christ. See Baronius, tom. 5. 
An. 4. 31. 


Q. 343 * What means, Pray for us 
sinners now? 

A. It means, that we need divine 
assistance every moment. 

Q. 344. What means, And at the 
hour of our death? 

A. It meaneth that we then especially 
shall need the aid of the blessed Mary, 
and her Son Jesus, and therefore do 
daily beg it. The word Amen, signifies, 
let it be done, or be it so. 

Chapter 7. 
Charity Expounded 

Q. 345. WHAT is Charity? 

A. It is the gift of God, or a supernatural 
quality infused by God into the soul of 
man, by which we love God above all 
things, and our neighbours as ourselves, 
for God's sake. 

Q. 346. Why is it called 

A. Because it is not in the power of 
nature to obtain it, but by the special 
grace and gift of God. 

Q. 347. Is charity imputed as 
protestants would have it, or is it a 
quality truly inherent in the soul. 

A. It is truly inherent in the soul, as 
wisdom is inherent in a soul that is wise, 
and love in a soul that loves. 

Q. 348. How prove you that? 

A. First out of Rom. v. 5. "The charity of 
God which is poured forth in our hearts, 
by the Holy Ghost, which is given us." 

Secondly, out of Dan. vi, 22, "Before him 
(i.e. God) justice have been found in 

Thirdly, out of Ephes. iii. 17, 18, where 
St. Paul prays for his brethren, "That 
Christ may dwell by faith in your hearts: 
that, being rooted and founded in 
charity, you may be able to comprehend, 
with all the saints, what is the breadth, 
and length, and height, and depth." 

Q. 349. What is it to love God 
above all things? 

A. To be willing to lose all things, rather 
than the grace or love of God by mortal 

Q. 350. Who has this love? 

A. They who keep the commandments of 
God, according to that, "This is the 
charity of God, that we keep his 
commandments; and his 
commandments are not heavy." 1 John 
v. 3 - 

Q. 351. Hath not he charity then, 
that breaks any of the 

A. He hath not; for "he that saith, he 
knoweth God, and doth not keep his 
commandments, is a liar, and the truth 
is not in him." 1 John ii. 4. 


Q. 352. What is it to love our 
neighbours as ourselves? 

A. To wish him as much good as we wish 
ourselves, and to do him no wrong. 

Q. 353 * Who is our neighbour? 

A. All men, women, and children, even 
those who injure us, or differ from us in 
religion, but especially Catholics. 

Q. 354. Why so? 

A. Because they are the images of God, 
and redeemed with the blood of Christ. 

Q. 355. Why especially Catholics? 

A. Because they are all members of the 
mystical body of Christ, which is the 

Q. 356. Whence ariseth the 
obligations of loving our 

A. Because God hath commanded it: and 
'if one shall say I love God, and hateth 
his brother, he is a liar.' 1 John, iv. 20. 

Q. 357. Are we not also bound to 
love our enemies? 

A. We are, according to that, "It was said 
of old, Thou shalt not kill: but I say unto 
you, Love your enemies." Matt. v. 43, 44. 

Q. 358. What kind of love are we 
bound to show to our enemies? 

A. We are bound to use a civil behaviour 
towards them, to pray for them in 
general, and to be disposed to do any 
charitable office for them when their 
necessity require it. 

Q. 359. What is the highest act of 

A. To give our life for God's honour, and 
the salvation of our neighbour. 

Q. 360. Why is charity the greatest 
and most excellent of virtues? 

A. Because it is the life of all the rest. 
"Faith without charity is dead." James ii. 

Q. 361. What state of life do we 
conceive to be of greatest 

A. That which of its own nature and 
proper institution obligeth to the highest 
and greatest charity, for charity is 
perfection, and such is the state not only 
of bishops, but also, as many probably 
think, of pastors who have the charge of 

Q. 362. How prove you that? 

A. Out of 1 John xv. 13; "Greater charity 
than this no man hath, that a man yield 
his life for his friends," which is the 
proper obligation of every parish priest, 
according to that, "The good pastor 
giveth his life for his sheep." John x. 12. 

Q. 363. How prove you the 
necessity of charity? 

A. Out of John iv. 16. "He that remains 
in charity, remains in God, and God in 
him," and chap. iii. ver 14, "He that loves 
not, remains in death." 

Q. 364. What are the effects of 

A. It destroys sin. "Charity covers a 
multitude of sins," James v. 20, and 
gives spiritual life to the soul. "In this we 
know that we are translated from death 
to life, because we love the brethren." 1 
John iii. 14. 


Chapter 8. 

Of the Commandments in general 

Q. 365. WHAT is the principal aim 
or end of the commandments? 

A. To teach us the will and pleasure of 
the eternal God, or the love of God, and 
our neighbour. "He that loveth his 
neighbour hath fulfilled the law." Rom. 
xiii. 8. 

Q. 366. Why are the 
commandments (excepting the 
determination of the sabbath day) 
called the commandments of the 
law of nature? 

A. Because God wrote them in the heart 
of men at the creation, being the very 
dictates of natural reason. 

Q. 367. When did he renew them 
in the written law? 

A. When he gave them to Moses on 
mount Sinai, in thunder and lightening, 
written in two tables of stone Exod. xx. 

Q. 368. Why in thunder and 

A. To move us to a careful observance of 

Q. 369. Are all men bound to know 
the commandments? 

A. For the substance of them they are, 
because they are the rule of our whole 
life and actions. 

Q. 370. How do you prove them to 
be only ten? 

A. Out of Deut. iv. 13, "He shewed his 
covenant which he commanded you to 
do, and the ten words which be wrote in 
two tables of stone." 

Q. 371. By what kind of sins are the 
commandments broken? 

A. By mortal sins only; for venial sins 
are not strictly speaking contrary to the 
end of the commandments, which is 

Q. 372. How declare you that? 

A. Because a venial sin, for example, a 
vain word, an officious or jesting lie, 
which hurts nobody, the theft of a pin or 
an apple, is not of weight enough to 
break charity between man and man, 
much less between God and man. 

Q. 373 * Is it possible for us to keep 
all the commandments? 

A. Not only possible, but necessary and 
easy, by the assistance of God's grace. 

Q. 374. How do you prove that? 

A. Because God is not a tyrant to 
command impossibilities under pain of 
eternal damnation, as he doth the 
keeping his commandments. 

Q. 375. How prove you that? 

A. First out of Exod. xx. and Deut. xxviii. 
15. where he often commands them to 
be kept, threatening grievous 
punishments to such as break them. 

Secondly, out of Matt. v. 19. 

"Whosoever, therefore, shall break one 
of these least commandments, and shall 
teach men so, he shall be called the least 
in the kingdom of heaven: but 
whosoever shall do and teach the same 
shall be called great in the kingdom of 


Thirdly, out of Matt. xi. 29, 30. "Take up 
my yoke upon you (saith the Lord) for 
my yoke is sweet, and my burden light." 
And again, 1 John v. 3. "His 
commandments are not heavy." 

Q. 376. Hath God ever promised to 
enable man to keep them? 

A. He hath, and also actually to make 
them keep and do them. 

Q. 377. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Ezek. xxxvi. 27. "I will put my 
spirit in the middle of you, (said our 
Lord) and I will make ye walk in my 
precepts, and keep my judgments and 
do them." And again, chap, xxxvii. 23, 

24. "They shall be my people, and I will 
be their God, there shall be one pastor of 
them all, and they shall walk in my 
judgments and keep my commandments 
and do them. 

Q. 378. How do you prove that any 
have kept them? 

A. Out of Luke i. 6. "Zachary and 
Elizabeth were both just before God: 
walking in all the commandments and 
justifications of our Lord without 

Q. 379. How prove you the keeping 
of them to be necessary to 

A. First, out of Matt. xix. 17. "If thou wilt 
enter into life (saith our Lord) keep the 
commandments. " 

Secondly, out of Luke x. 25, 28, where 
the lawyer had asked, what he should do 
to possess everlasting life, and had 
repeated the sum of the 
commandments: Christ answered him 
saying, "Do this, and thou shalt live." 

Thirdly, out of Rom. ii. 13, "Not hearers 
of the law are just with God, but the 
doers of the law shall be justified." 


The First Commandment 

Q. 380. WHAT is the first 

A. I am the Lord thy God, who brought 
thee out of the land of Egypt, and out of 
the house of bondage. Thou shalt not 
have strange gods before me. Thou shalt 
not make to thyself a graven thing, nor 
the likeness of any thing that is in 
heaven above, or in the earth below, or 
of those things that are in the waters 

under the earth. Thou shalt not adore 
nor worship them; I am the Lord thy 
God, mighty, jealous, visiting the sins of 
the fathers upon their children, to the 
third and fourth generation of them that 
hate me; and showing mercy to 
thousands of those that love me, and 
keep my commandments. Exod. xx. 

Q. 381. What are we commanded 
by this precept? 


A. To serve, love, adore, and worship 
one only, true, living, and eternal God, 
and no more. 

Q. 382. What are we forbidden by 
this precept? 

A. Not to worship any creature for a 
God, or give to it the honour which is 
due to God. 

Q. 383. What is the honour due to 

A. A supreme and sovereign honour, 
which is called by divines Latria; by 
which we honour him as the great 
master of life and death, as our creator, 
redeemer, preserver, and last end. 

Q. 384. How do men sin against 
this commandment? 

A. By worshipping idols and false gods, 
by erring or doubting in faith, by 
superstition and witchcraft. 

Q. 385. How else? 

A. By communicating with infidels or 
heretics, by believing dreams, &c. 

Q. 386. How do you prove it a 
great sin to go to church with 

A. Because by so doing we outwardly 
deny our faith, and profess their false 

Q. 387. What scripture have you 
against it? 

A. Out of Luke xvii. 23, 24, where Christ 
forbids it, saying, "And they shall say 
unto you, Lo! here is Christ, Lo, there 
Christ; go ye not, neither do you follow 

Q. 388. What other proof have 

A. Out of Tit. iii. 10, 11. "A man that is a 
heretic, after the first and second 
admonition, avoid, knowing that he that 
is such an one is subverted and sinneth." 

Q. 389. How do you prove it 
unlawful to go to witches and 

A. Out of Deut. xviii. 10, 11. "There shall 
not be found among you any one that 
shall expiate his son or daughter making 
them to pass through the fire, or that 
useth divination, or any observer of 
times, or enchanter, or witch, or a 
charmer, or a wizard, or necromancer, 
&c. For all these things our Lord 

Q. 390. What understand you by 
these words. Thou shalt not make 
to thyself any graven thing, &c. 
Thou shalt not adore them, &c. 

A. I understand that we must not make 
idols or images, nor any graven thing 
whatsoever, to adore it as a god, or with 
God's honour. 

Q. 391. Why are not these words 
expressed at length in many of our 
short catechisms? 

A. Because they are sufficiently included 
in the preceding words, "Thou shalt not 
have strange (or other) gods before me." 

Q. 392. How declare you that? 

A. Because if we must have no other but 
the only true God, who created heaven 
and earth, then it is clear to the reason 
of every child, that we must not have 
many gods, or any graven things for 
gods, or adore any other things for God. 

Q. 393. Why do Protestants of 
those of new religions, instead of 
graven things, translate graven 


A. Because they have a will to corrupt 
the text, in hope by so doing to persuade 
ignorant people, that Catholics are 
idolaters, and break the first 
commandment by making and 
worshipping images. 

Q. 394. How do you prove they 
corrupt the text? 

A. Because the Hebrew word is Pesel, 
which signifies a graven thing, the Greek 
is Idolon, and the Latin is Sculptile, a 
graven thing; therefore the word Image 
is a mere corruption. 

Q. 395. Is it lawful then to give any 
honour to the images of Christ and 
his saints? 

A. Yes, an inferior or relative honour, as 
much as they represent unto us heavenly 
things, but not God's honour, nor yet the 
honour due the saints. 

Q. 396. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Exod. xxv. 18, 19, 22, where 
God himself commanded "two 
cherubims to be made of beaten gold, 
and to be set on both sides of the ark 
(before which the people were to pray) 
and promised that he would speak unto 
them from the middle of the 
cherubims;" therefore it is lawful to 
make images and pray before them. 

Q. 397. Do not Catholics pray to 
images and relics? 

A. By no means; we pray before them, 
indeed, to excite our devotion, and to 
keep our thoughts collected upon 
heavenly subjects; but we do not, at all, 
pray to them; for we know well they can 
neither see, nor hear, nor help us. 

Q. 398. What other proof have you 
for the lawful use of images? 

A. First, out of John iii. 14, where Christ 
approves the making and exalting the 
brazen serpent, by which the Israelites 
were healed in the desert, and owns it to 
be an image or figure of himself, exalted 
on the cross. 

Secondly, because we read in Baronius, 
that the famous church historian, in the 
year of Christ, 31, that Christ himself 
sent his own image to king Abdagar, and 
made it also by the miracle on the 
handkerchief of St. Veronica, and on his 
own shroud. 

Add to this, the second Nicene council, 
Actio 4, anathematizes image-breakers, 
that is such as shall break them in 
contempt or scorn, and all such as allege 
the places in scripture, which are against 
idols, are against the sacred images; and 
also those who say that Catholics honour 
images as God, with sovereign honour. 

Q. 399. How could you further 
satisfy a Protestant, that should 
charge you with idolatry, in giving 
sovereign honour to pictures and 

A. I would for satisfaction herein, if 
necessary, break a crucifix, or tear a 
picture of Jesus Christ in pieces, and 
throw the pieces into the fire; and would 
show him the council of Trent, Sess. 25, 
which teaches thus, "Images are not to 
be venerated for any virtue of divinity 
that is believed to be in them, or for any 
trust or confidence that is to be put in 
them, as the Gentiles did of old, who 
reposed their hope and trust in their 
idols; but because the honour that is 
exhibited to them, is referred to the 
prototypes represented by them" &c. 

Q. 400. What benefits do we 
receive by images? 

A. Very great, because they movingly 
represent to us the mysteries of our 


Saviour's passion, as also by 
martyrdoms and examples of his saints. 

Q. 401. Is there not some danger of 
Idolatry in the frequent use of 

A. Truly none at all; for it is not possible 
that any rational man, who is instructed 
in Christianity, would conceive or think 
a piece of painted wood or marble, is 
that God and man, Jesus Christ, who 
was born of the Virgin Mary, died on the 
cross, arose from the dead, ascended 
into heaven, and sits now on the right 
hand of God. 

Q. 402. But how, if such 
inconveniences happen, at least by 

A. Let the abuse be mended, and not the 
good institution taken away or blamed; 
For man's nature is subject to hurt itself, 
even in the best things, which must not 
therefore be given over. 

Q. 403. How do you prove it lawful 
to paint God the Father like an old 
man, seeing he is pure spirit, and 
hath no body? 

A. Because he appeared to the prophet 
Daniel in the shape of an old man, Dan. 
7, but this is to be understood, that the 
pictures we make, are not the proper 
images of God the Father, but the shape 
wherein he appeared to Daniel. And the 
like is to be understood of the pictures of 
angels, to wit, that they are not proper 
images of them, according to their 
spiritual substance, but of the shape 
they appear in to men. 

Q. 404. What utility doth accrue to 
us by our honouring and 
canonizing Saints? 

A. Very great, seeing it much conduceth 
to the imitation of their virtues, and the 

love of God, making us know that it is 
possible even for ourselves, to come to 
the like reward. 

Q. 405. How declare you that? 

A. Because the higher esteem we have of 
the saints, and the excellency of their 
state, the more ardent must needs be 
our desire, and the stronger our courage, 
to do and undertake what they did and 

Q. 406. Is it lawful to honour the 
angels and saints? 

A. It is with Dulia, an inferior honour, 
proportioned to their excellency, which 
they have from God; it is God we honour 
in them. 

Q. 407. How prove you that? 

A. First, out of Josue v. 14, where the 
angel of the Lord said to Josue, "I am 
the prince of the host of our Lord." 

Josue fell on his face to the ground; and 
worshipping said, "What saith my Lord 
to his servant?' 

Secondly, out of Apoc. xxii. 8, where 
John (though the angel had already 
forbidden him so to do, because of his 
apostolical dignity, chap xix. 10.) "fell 
down to adore before the feet of the 
angel, who shewed him these things." 

Q. 408. Is it lawful to honour the 
relics of saints? 

A. With a relative honour it is, referring 
it to God's honour. 

Q. 409. How prove you that? 

A. First, because a dead man was raised 
from death to life by touching the bones 
of Eliseus the prophet, 4 Kings xiii. 21. 

Secondly, out of Matt. ix. 20, 21, where 
we read the woman was healed of her 
bloody flux, but by the touching the hem 


of our Saviour's garment, and believing 
it would heal her. 

Thirdly, out of Acts xviii. 19. "The 
handkerchiefs and aprons which had but 
touched the body of St. Paul, cast out 
devils, and cured all diseases." 

Q. 410. How prove you that dead 
and inanimate things, (for 
example, medals, crosses, 
churches, bread, water and the 
like) are capable of sanctity and 

A. First, out of Joshua iv. 16, and Exod. 
iii. 5, where the Angel saith to Moses 
and Joshua, "Loose thy shoes from 'thy 
feet, for the ground whereon thou 
standest is holy ground." 

Secondly, out of Matt, xxiii. 17, 18, 
where we read, that the temple 
sanctifieth the gold, and the altar the 
gift. "Ye fools and blind, (saith our 
Lord,) whether is greater, the gold, or 
the temple that sanctifieth the gold? the 
gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? 

Thirdly, out of Tim. iv. 4, 5. "Every 
creature of God is sanctified by the word 
of God and prayer," and out of 2 Peter i. 
18, where he calls the mountain Tabor a 
holy hill, because Christ was 
transfigured upon it. 

Q. 411. How prove you that 
pilgrimages to holy places, as to 
mount Calvary, mount Tabor, and 
the sepulchre of Christ, are 
laudable and pious practices? 

A. First, out of Deut. xvi. 16, where God 
himself commanded, that thrice a year 
all the people should come up into 
Jerusalem, to adore and make their 
offerings to him." 

Secondly, the example of Christ himself, 
our blessed Lady, and St. Joseph, "who 

went up to Jerusalem, the solemn day of 
the Pasch." Luke ii. 41, 42. 

Thirdly, out of Acts viii. where the 
Ethiopian eunuch, going on a pilgrimage 
to Jerusalem, was in his return 
converted and baptized by St. Philip, so 
pleasing was his pilgrimage to God. 

Finally, because it was foretold by the 
prophets that these places which Christ 
sanctified by his passion should be of 
great pilgrimage and adoration, "We will 
adore (saith David) in the place where 
his feet stood," Psalm cxxxi. 7. And in 
Isa. xi. 10, we read, "To him shall the 
Gentiles pray, and his sepulchre shall be 

Q. 412. How do you prove it lawful 
to go on pilgrimages to the shrines 
of Saints? 

A. Because, as you have read already, 
their relics are holy and venerable 
things, and God is pleased to work great 
cures and miracles by them for such as 
are devout honourers of them. 

Q. 413. If there any power now in 
the church to do miracles? 

A. There is according to that unlimited 
promise of Christ. "And these signs shall 
follow them that believe: In my name 
they shall cast out devils; they shall 
speak with new tongues: they shall lay 
their hands upon the sick, and they shall 
recover." Mark xvi. 17. 

Q. 414. Have these things been 
done in latter ages? 

A. They have, and are, as you may see in 
the unquestioned histories and records 
of all Catholic countries; where many 
great miracles wrought by the servants 
of God, especially at pilgrimages and 
shrines of Saints, are yearly registered 
under the depositions of eye-witnesses, 


men above all exceptions, which cannot 
be denied unless we deny all history. 

Q. 415. Why do the pretended 
reformers say miracles are 

A. Because they have never yet been able 
to do any in confirmation of their errors. 

Q. 416. Why are so few done here 
in our days? 

A. By reason of incredulity of many bad 
Christians. Matt. xiii. 58. 

Q. 417. What necessity is there for 
the belief of miracles? 

A. Doubtless very great; because the 
belief of miracles well grounded, make 
men extremely apprehensive of the 
presence of God, and his immediate 
government of human affairs; so that he 
who absolutely denies miracles, is to be 
suspected of not believing particular 
providence, which is the main string on 
which all Christianity depends. 

The Second Commandment 

Q. 418. WHAT is the second 

A. Thou shalt not take the name of the 
Lord by God in vain. 

Q. 419. What is forbidden by this 

A. All false, rash, and unnecessary oaths. 

Q. 420. What kind of sins are false 
and rash oaths? 

A. Mortal sins, if they be voluntary and 
deliberate, because by such oaths, we 
call God to witness a lie; or at least to 
that which is uncertain. 

Q. 421. What are the necessary 
conditions of a lawful oath? 

A. Truth, that we hurt not God's honour; 
justice that we wrong not our neighbour; 
and judgment, that we swear not vainly. 

Q. 422. What is the just cause of an 

A. God's honour, our own, or our 
neighbour's good and defence. 

Q. 423. If a man swears to do that 
which is evil, is he bound to keep 
his oath? 

A. No, he is not bound to keep it; for an 
oath is no bond of iniquity. 

Q. 424. How prove you a vain or 
jesting oath to be a sin? 

A. Out of Matt. v. 33. "It was said of old 
(saith our Lord) Thou shalt not commit 
perjury; but I say unto you, not to swear 
at all," that is without just cause. 

Q. 425. What other proof have 

A. Out of James v. 12. "But above all 
things, my brethren, swear not, neither 
by heaven, nor by earth, nor by any 
other oath. But let your speech be: Yea, 
yea: no, no: that you fall not under 

Q. 426. What else is prohibited by 
this precept? 

A. All cursing and blaspheming. 

Q. 427. How else do men sin 
against this precept? 

A. By breaking lawful vows, and by 
making or keeping unlawful ones. 

Q. 428. What is a lawful vow? 

A. It is a deliberate and voluntary 
promise made to God, of some better 


Q. 429. How do you prove it lawful 
to make vows? 

A. Out of Isa. xix. 21. "They shall make 
vows unto the Lord, and shall pay 

Q. 430. What is commanded by 
this precept? 

A. To speak always with reverence of 
God, and his saints. 

The Third Commandment 

Q. 431. WHAT is the third 

A. Remember that thou keepest holy the 
sabbath day. 

Q. 432. When did the Sabbath 
begin to be kept? 

A. From the very creation of the world; 
for then God blessed the seventh day, 
and rested on it from all His works. Gen. 
ii. 2. 

Q. 433. When was this 
commandment renewed? 

A. In the Old Law; when God gave the 
commandments to Moses on mount 
Sinai, written with His own finger in two 
tables of stone, Exod. xx. 1, &c. xxxi. 18. 

Q. 434. Why was the Jewish 
Sabbath changed into the Sunday? 

A. Because Christ was born upon a 
Sunday, arose from the dead upon a 
Sunday, and sent down the Holy Ghost 
on a Sunday: works not inferior to the 
creation of the world. 

Q. 435. By whom was it changed? 

A. By the Governors of the Church, the 
Apostles, who also kept it; for St. John 
was in spirit on the Lord’s day (which 
was Sunday.) Apoc. i. 10. 

Q. 436. How prove you that the 
Church hath power to command 
feasts and holydays? 

A. By the very act of changing the 
sabbath into Sunday, which Protestants 
allow of; and therefore they fondly 
contradict themselves, by keeping 
Sunday strictly, and breaking most other 
feasts commanded by the same Church. 

Q. 437. How prove you that? 

A. Because by keeping Sunday, they 
acknowledge the Church's power to 
ordain feasts, and to command them 
under sin; and by not keeping the rest by 
her commanded, they again deny, in 
fact, the same power. 

Q. 438. What other proof have 

A. Out of John x. 22, where we read that 
Christ himself was present, and kept the 
Dedication of the temple in Jerusalem, a 
feast ordained by Judas Maccabseus, 1 
Mace. iv. 59. 

And out of Acts ii. 1, 4, where the 
Apostles, keeping the feast of Pentecost, 
"were all filled with the Holy Ghost." 
Neither do Protestants as yet differ from 
this, though some have lately prohibited 
and profaned both it and the holy feast 
of the Resurrection, and all the other 
feasts of the Church. 

Q. 439. What commandment have 
you from God for obedience to the 
Church in things of this nature? 

A. Out of Acts xv. 41, where we read that 
"St. Paul went about confirming the 
Churches, and commanding them to 
keep the precepts of the Apostles and 
the ancients." And out of Luke x. 16, "He 
that heareth you, heareth me; and he 
that despiseth you (the Church) 
despiseth me." 


Q. 440. May temporal princes and 
the laity make a holy day? 

A. With consent and approbation of the 
Church, they may, otherwise not; 
because this is an act of spiritual 

Q. 441. For what end doth the 
Church ordain holydays? 

A. For the increase of piety, and the 
memory of special benefits received 
from God. 

Q. 442. If keeping the Sunday be a 
church precept, why is it 
numbered in the decalogue, which 
are the Commandments of God, 
and the Law of Nature? 

A. Because the substance or chief part of 
it, namely Divine Right, and the Law of 
Nature; though the determinating this 
particular day, Sunday rather than 
Saturday, be a Church ordinance and 

Q. 443. Did not Christ, when he 
confirmed the rest, confirm also 
this commandment? 

A. In as much as it belongeth to the law 
of nature, he did: but not as it belonged 
to the ceremonial law of the Jews, and 
was affixed to Saturday, therefore, now 
we are not bound to keep Saturday. 

Q. 444. Why so, I pray you? 

A. Because that particular day was a 
command of the ceremonial law of the 
Jews, which was abrogated, and ceased 
to oblige after the death of Christ. 

Q. 445. To what are we obliged by 
this precept? 

A. To spend Sunday in prayer and divine 

Q. 446. What is the best means to 
sanctify the Sunday? 

A. By hearing mass, confessing our sins, 
communicating, hearing sermons, and 
reading good books. 

Q. 447. What is forbidden by this 

A. All profane employments, and servile 
labours, excepting such as are of 
necessity, as dressing meat, serving 
cattle, &c. or such as appertain to piety 
and works of mercy. 

Q. 448. Who break this 

A. Such as without necessity spend any 
considerable part of the Sunday in 
servile labours. 

Q. 449. How else is the Sunday 

A. By spending all the morning 
slothfully in bed, or vainly dressing 
ourselves; by missing divine service 
when we may hear it, or spending a part 
of the day in drinking, gaming, dancing, 
or the like. 

Q. 450. Is there any thing now in 
this first table of the law 
impossible to be observed? 

A. No certainly; for nothing can be more 
easy and delightful to the true servant of 
God, than the things that are here 

Q. 451. Why do you now divide the 
table of Moral law into three and 
seven, whereas anciently some 
Fathers assigned four to the first 
table, and six to the last? 

A. Concerning the manner of limiting 
the number of commandments to each 
table, the scripture says nothing, not so 
much as which is the third, which is the 


fourth commandment, and therefore it 
is in itself indifferent: St. Jerome divides 
them into four and six, which is no 
where condemned, St. Augustine into 
three and seven, who is more generally 
followed; but indeed the matter is of no 
great importance how we reckon them 
so we retain them in our books, and 
keep them in our lives. 

Q. 452. But what reason can justify 
the omission of so great a part of 
the text, when we transcribe the 
commandments into our 

A. Such books being composed 
principally for the unlearned, are by the 
pastors of the church abridged into the 
shortest and easiest method they can, 
prudently condescending to the weak 
memories and low capacities of the 
people: nor can the church be accused of 
the least shadow of corrupting or 
omitting any part of the 
commandments, or of God's word; since 
in no Catholic Bible is there one syllable 
left out; and whether the first 
commandment, after this account, be 
divided, and the two last united, or 
contrawise the last divided and the first 
united, is not at all material, the whole 
ten commandments being entirely 
contained in both, or either way. 


The Fourth Commandment 

Q. 453. WHAT is the fourth 

A. Honour thy father and mother. 

Q. 454. What are we commanded 
by this precept. 

A. To love, reverence, obey, and relieve 
our parents in their wants. 

Q. 455. Why to love them? 

A. Because, under God they are the chief 
causes of our very life and being; and do 
not only bring us up with much love, 
labour, and solicitude. 

Q. 456. How are we bound to 
reverence them? 

A. Not only inwardly in our heart, but 
also outwardly in our carriage and 

Q. 457. Why to obey them? 

A. Because they are God's vicegerents, 
and have received power from him 
(from whom is all paternity in heaven 
and earth) both to direct us, instruct us, 
and correct us. 

Q. 458. In what things are we 
bound to obey our parents? 

A. In all that is not sin, according to that, 
"Children obey your parents in all 
things, for that is pleasing unto God." 
Col. iii. 20. 

Q. 459. What is prohibited by the 

A. All sourness, stubbornness, and 
disobedience to parents. 

Q. 460. What is the reward of 
dutiful children? 

A. Long and happy life; "The blessing of 
heaven comes upon them, and remains 
to the end of their days." Eccl. iii. 10. 

Q. 461. What is the reward of 
undutiful children? 

A. A short and sinful life, accompanied 
with an untimely death witness the 
example of Absalom, 2 Kings viii. 14. 


Q. 462. What other proof have 

A. That of Prov. xxx. 17. "The eye that 
mocketh at his father, and that despiseth 
the travail of his mother in bearing him, 
let the ravens of the torrent pick it out 
and the young of the eagle eat it." 

Q. 463. What signifies the word 

A. It signifies not only our corporal 
parents, but also our Ghostly Father, 
and all lawful superiors. 

Q. 464. What owe we to the 
Ghostly Father? 

A. Love, reverence, obedience, and 

Q. 465. Why love? 

A. Because they are the fathers and 
feeders of our souls, and under God and 
his saints, the instrumental causes of 
our spiritual good: "For in Christ Jesus I 
have begotten you through the gospel," 
(saith St. Paul) 1 Cor. iv. 15. 

Q. 466. Why reverence? 

A. Because they are God's anointed, and 
represent the person of Christ. 

Q. 467. Why obedience? 

A. Because God hath appointed them to 
be our spiritual pastors, guides, and 

Q. 468. In what are we bound to 
obey them? 

A. In all things belonging to faith, 
doctrine, and the government of our 

Q. 469. Is any great honour due to 
priests and ghostly fathers? 

A. There is, according to that of St. Paul. 
"Let the priests who rule well be 
esteemed worthy of double honour; 
especially they who labour in the word 
and doctrine." 1 Tim. v. 17. 

Q. 470. Have you any other place? 

A. Yes, Eccle. vii. 13, 32, 33, "With all thy 
soul fear our Lord and reverence his 
priests, with all thy strength, love them 
that made thee and forsake not his 
master, honour God with all thy soul, 
and honour the priests." And the reason 
is, for if we owe love, honour, and 
obedience to our carnal parents, much 
more to our spiritual, by how much the 
soul surpasseth the body. Again, as there 
is none greater than priests, who are 
empowered to shut and open the gates 
of heaven, as also to convert the 
substance of bread and wine, into the 
most precious body and blood of our 
blessed Saviour: to no person is greater 
honour due, than to them who 
personate Christ himself, so that he who 
despiseth them despiseth Christ himself, 
and the disregard of them is the origin of 

Q. 471. How may we sin against 
priests and ghostly fathers? 

A. By disobeying or detracting them, or 
believing slanderous reports against 
them, upon mere hearsay, or the 
testimony of insufficient witnesses, or 
without witnesses. 

Q. 472. What testimony is 
sufficient against a priest? 

A. I will tell you out of St. Paul's mouth: 
"Against a priest (saith he to Timothy 
the bishop of Ephesus) receive not an 
accusation under two or three 
witnesses." 1 Tim. v. 19, and 21, "I 
charge thee before God, and Christ 
Jesus, and the elect angels, that thou 
observe these things without prejudice, 


doing nothing by declining to either 

Q. 473. Is it convenient to ask a 
blessing of priests? 

A. It is, because they give it in the name 
and person of Christ. 

Q. 474. What warrant have you for 

A. First out of Mark 14, 16, where "Christ 
laying his hands upon the children, 
blessed them." 

Secondly, the example of Melchisedech 
blessing Abraham; upon which St. Paul 
saith, "without all contradiction, that 
which is less, is blessed of the better." 
Heb. vii. 7. 

Q. 475. What scripture have you 
for obedience to priests? 

A. Heb. xiii. 17. "Obey your prelates, and 
be subject to them; for they watch, as 
being to render an account for your 
souls." And in the old law, disobedience 
to the priests was punished with death, 
Deut. xvii. 12. 

Q. 476. In what are we bound 
under sin to obey princes and 
temporal magistrates? 

A. In all things (which are not sin) 
belonging to the good and peace of the 

Q. 477. How prove you that? 

A. First, out of Rom. xiii. 1. "Let every 
soul be subject to the higher powers, for 
there is no power but of God: he 
therefore that resists power, resists the 
ordinance of God." 

Secondly, out of 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14. "Be ye 
subject to every creature for God, 
whether to the king as excelling, or to 

magistrates, as sent by him to the 
revenge of malefactors. 

Q. 478. What if kings or 
magistrates command us to do sin, 
or things against our conscience? 

A. Then we must answer them with the 
apostles, 'we must obey God, rather than 
men." Acts v. 29. 

Q. 479. In what are servants bound 
to obey their masters? 

A. In all things that are not sin, 
belonging to their charge. 

Q. 480. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Coloss. iii. 22. "Servants, obey 
in all things your masters, according to 
the flesh, not serving the eye, as pleasing 
men, but in simplicity of heart, as 
pleasing God. 

Q. 481. How do servants sin 
against their masters? 

A. By neglecting their commands, 
stealing or spoiling their goods, &c. 

The Fifth Commandment 

Q. 482. WHAT is the fifth 

A. Thou shalt not kill. 

Q. 483. What is prohibited by this? 

A. All murder, unjust shedding of blood, 
fighting and quarreling. 

Q. 484. Is it not lawful to kill in any 

A. Yes, in a just war, or when public 
justice requires it: "For the magistrate 
beareth not the sword without cause." 
Rom. i. 4. As also in the blameless 
defence of our own, or our innocent 


neighbour's life, against an unjust 

Q. 485. Is it lawful to fight duels, 
appointing a set time and place, 
for private interest, or punctilios 
of honour? 

A. No, by no means; for the church hath 
forbidden it under excommunication, to 
be incurred ipso facto; and such as die in 
duels, can be neither have Christian 
burial nor be prayed for the church. 

Q. 486. How prove you all fighting 
and quarreling to be unlawful? 

A. Out of Matt. v. 39. "You have heard 
(saith Christ) it was said of old, and eye 
for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth; but I 
say unto you not to resist evil, but if any 
other strike thee on the right cheek, turn 
to him also the other." 

Q. 487. What else is forbidden by 
this precept? 

A. To seek, wish, or desire our own, or 
any other man's death, out of impatience 
or passion, or to cause women with child 
to miscarry. 

The Sixth Commandment 

Q. 488. WHAT is the sixth 

A. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

Q. 489. What is prohibited by this 

A. All carnal sin with another man's 
wife, or another woman's husband, and 
chiefly adultery; as also fornication and 

Q. 490. How prove you fornication 
and pollution to be mortal sins? 

A. Out of Col. iii. 5, 6. "Mortify, 
therefore, (saith St. Paul,) your 
members, which are upon earth: 
fornication, uncleanness, lust, evil 
concupiscence, and covetousness, which 
is the service of idols: for which things 
the wrath of God cometh upon the 
children of unbelief." 

Q. 491. In what case is it lawful for 
a man to dismiss his wife? 

A. Only in case of evident adultery. 

Q. 492. Can he that hath so 
dismissed his wife, marry another 
during her life? 

A. He cannot; for "he that dismisseth his 
wife and marries another, committeth 
adultery." Matt. v. 32. And Luke xvi. 18. 
"He that marries her, that is so 
dismissed, commits adultery." 

Q. 493. Why is adultery a far 
greater sin than fornication? 

A. Because it is a greater injury to our 
innocent neighbour, as also to the 
sacrament of matrimony. 

Q. 494. How prove you that a wife 
so dismissed from her husband, 
cannot marry again during her 
husband's life? 

A. Out of 1 Cor. vii. 10, 11. "But to them, 
that are married, not I, but the Lord 
commandeth, that the wife depart not 
from her husband: and if she depart, 
that she remain unmarried." And ver. 

39 - 

"A woman is bound to the law, so long as 
her husband liveth; but if her husband 
sleep (that is be dead) she is at liberty, 
let her marry whom she will." 

Q. 495. What else is forbidden by 
this precept? 


A. Whoredom, incest, sacrilege, and sins 
against nature. 

Q. 496. Why is lust hateful in the 
sight of God? 

A. Because it defiles in us the image of 
God, and the temple of the Holy Ghost. 

Q. 497. What more is here 

A. Unchaste touching of ourselves or 
others, with delight in lustful thoughts 
and kisses. 

Q. 498. What is the heir of 
unlawful lust? 

A. Death and damnation; for, "neither 
fornicators nor adulterers, nor 
effeminate," (that is such as defile 
themselves with voluntary pollution,) 
"shall possess the kingdom of God." 1 
Cor. vi. 9. 

The Seventh Commandment 

Q. 499. WHAT is the seventh 

A. Thou shalt not steal. 

Q. 500. What is forbidden by this 

A. All unjust taking away, or detaining 
that which is another man's. 

Q. 501. How many kinds of theft be 

A. Three kinds, simple theft, which is a 
secret taking away that which is another 
man's; rapine, which is a taking away by 
open violence, or keeping of that which 
is another man's; and sacrilege, which is 
stealing of sacred things, or out of 
sacred places. 

Q. 502. When is theft a mortal sin? 

A. When the thing stolen is of a 
considerable value, or causeth a 
considerable hurt to our neighbour. 

Q. 503. How prove you that: 

A. Out of 1 Cor. vi. 10. "Neither thieves, 
nor covetous men, nor extortioners, 
shall possess the kingdom of God." 

Q. 504. What doth the sin of theft 
oblige us to? 

A. To make restitution of the things 
stolen to the right owner, if we be able, 
else the sin will not be forgiven us. 

Q. 505. What else is here 

A. All usury, bribery, cozenage in 
gaming, or unjust gain by buying or 

Q. 506. What is usury? 

A. It is to receive, or to hope for some 
money or moneys' worth, as gain, above 
the principle, immediately out of the 
consideration of loan. 

Q. 507. How prove you usury and 
bribery to great sins? 

A. Out of Psalm xiv. 1, 6. "O Lord, who 
shall dwell in thy tabernacle, or who 
shall rest in thy holy mountain? He that 
have not given his money to use, nor 
taken bribes upon the innocent man." 
And from Ezek. xxii 12. "Thou hast taken 
usury and increase, and hast covetously 
oppressed thy neighbours. I will 
disperse thee in the nations, and will 
scatter thee among the countries." 
Likewise from Luke vi. 35, where the 
Lord says, "Do good and lend, hoping 
for nothing thereby." See on this the 
Catechism of the holy council of Trent. 

Q. 508. How are rich men soonest 
brought to beggary? 


A. By mingling other men's goods 
among their own. 

Q. 509. How do men generally sin 
against this precept? 

A. Princes, by imposing unjust taxes on 
their subjects; subjects, by not paying 
their due taxes to their princes: buyers 
and sellers, by deceitful weight and 
measure, or by exceeding the just prices: 
masters by defrauding servants of their 
wages: and servants, by embezzling their 
master's goods. "And that no man over- 
reach or deceive his brother in business: 
because the Lord is the avenger of all 
such things, as we have told you before, 
and have testified." 1 Thess. iv. 6. 

The Eighth Commandment 

Q. 510. WHAT is the eighth 

A. Thou shalt not bear false witness 
against thy neighbour. 

Q. 511. What is prohibited by this 

A. All false testimonials, rash judgment, 
and lies. 

Q. 512. Why is false testimony so 
great a sin? 

A. Because it is against the justice of 
God, and our neighbour. 

Q. 513. How prove you that corrupt 
judgment is a great sin? 

A. Out of Isa. v. 22, 23, 24. "Woe be to 
you that call evil good, that justify the 
impious man for bribes and rob the just 
man of his justice; for as fire devoureth 
the stubble, so shall the root of these 
men be ashes." 

Q. 514. Why is rash judgment a 
great sin? 

A. Because it robs God of his judgment, 
and our neighbour of his good name: 

"Do not ye judge, that you be not 
judged." Matt. vii. 1. 

Q. 515. Why is it a sin to lie? 

A. Because "the devil is a liar, and the 
father of all lies." John viii. 44. 

Q. 516. What else is prohibited by 
the precept? 

A. The crimes of whispering, flattery, 

Q. 517. What is whispering? 

A. It is to break friendship between 
others, by speaking ill of one unto the 
other behind his back. 

Q. 518. What is flattery? 

A. to attribute to another some 
perfection which he hath not, or to 
praise him for that which he deserves 

Q. 519. What is detraction? 

A. Is it a secret staining and blotting 
another's good name. 

Q. 520. What is calumny? 

A. It is telling a falsehood of our 
neighbour to his prejudice. 

Q. 521. Are lies, backbiting, 
flattery, affronts, detraction, and 
calumny, grievous sins? 

A. They are often very grievous sins. The 
scriptures saith, Prov. vi. 16, 19. "Six 
things there are which the Lord hateth; 
and the seventh his soul destesteth. 
Haughty eyes, a lying tongue, hands that 
shed innocent blood, a heart that 
deviseth wicked plots, feet that are swift 
to run into mischief, a deceitful witness 
that uttereth lies, and him that soweth 
discord among the brethren. 


Q. 522. What is he bound to, that 
hath hurt his neighbour in any of 
these kinds? 

A. To make him satisfaction, and restore 
him his good name. 

Q. 523. How for example? 

A. If he have told a hurtful lie of him, he 
is bound to unsay it; or if he have 
revealed his secret sin, he is bound to 
speak well of the same party, and to 
mitigate the matter as well as he can. 

Q. 524. Is it a sin to hearken to 

A. To do it willingly, and with delight, or 
so as to encourage the detractor, it is; for 
by so doing we cooperate with the 

Q. 525. How them must we behave 
ourselves among detractors? 

A. If they be inferiors, we must 
reprehend them; if equals or superiors, 
we must show ourselves at least not 
pleased with that discourse. 

Q. 526. What is rash judgment? 

A. That which is grounded on mere 
hearsay, jealousy, and surmises without 
any moral certainty, or great probability. 

Q. 527. When is a lie a mortal sin? 

A. When it is any great dishonour to God 
or notable prejudice to our neighbour: 
otherwise, if it be merely officious, or 
trifling, it is but a venial sin. 

The Ninth and Tenth 
Commandments Expounded 

Q. 528. WHAT are the ninth and 
tenth commandments? 

A. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's 
wife, Thou shalt not covet thy 
neighbour's goods. 

Q. 529. What is prohibited by these 

A. The inordinate will or desire of 
unlawful lust, especially adultery, and of 
all these. 

Q. 530. What else? 

A. Not only deliberate desire or consent, 
but likewise all voluntary delight and 
complacency, in covetous or impure 
thoughts and motions of the flesh. 

Q. 531. How prove you that 
unchaste desires are mortal sins? 

A. Out of Matt. v. 27, 28. "It was said of 
old, Thou shalt not commit adultery; but 
I say unto you, whosoever shall see a 
woman to lust after her, he hath already 
committed adultery in his heart." 

Q. 532. How prove you covetous 
desires to be great sins? 

A. Out of 1 Tim. vi. 9. "For they who 
would become rich, fall into temptation, 
and into the snare of the devil, and into 
many unprofitable and hurtful desires, 
which drown men in destruction and 

Q. 533 * Is there any sin in those 
motions of concupiscence, which 
we feel an suffer against our wills? 

A. There is not, for nothing is sin, which 
is not voluntary and deliberate. Nay, if 
resisted they become the occasion of 
merit to us. To them were liable the 
most perfect saints, and even the 
apostles themselves; for Paul, 2 Cor. xii. 
7, 8, 9, writes, "And lest the greatness of 
the revelations should puff me up, there 
was given me a sting of my flesh, and 
angel of Satan, to buffet me. For which 
thing I thrice besought the Lord, that it 
might depart from me: And he said to 
me: My grace is sufficient for thee: for 
power is made perfect in infirmity. 


Q. 534. What think you now of this 
second table of the law, is there 
any thing that favours of 

A. No certainly, for there is nothing 
commanded us, which the very law of 
nature and right reason doth not dictate 
to us; and therefore ought to be 
observed and done, although it were not 
commanded us. 

Q. 535. Is there any thing but what 
every man expects and desires to 
have done to himself by others? 

A. There is not, therefore we must do the 
same to others, according to that, "All 
things whatsoever you will that men do 

unto you, do ye also to them; for this is 
the law and the prophets." Matt. vii. 12. 

Q. 536. Why then do Protestants 
pretend and say, that the 
commandments are impossible to 
be kept? 

A. Because they are not willing to oblige 
themselves to the observance of them, 
but had rather make God the author of 
sin, by commanding impossibilities, (a 
most high blasphemy) and justify their 
own iniquities by saying, they cannot 
help it; than humbly acknowledge and 
confess their sins, with purpose to 
amend, by an acceptance of the law of 

Chapter 9. 

The Precepts of the Church Expounded 

Q. 537. HOW many are the 
commandments of the church? 

A. There be six principle ones. 

The First Precept of the 
Church Expounded 

Q. 538. What is the first? 

A. "To hear mass on Sundays and 
holydays," if we have opportunity to do 
it, and there be no just cause to the 

Q. 539. Why on all Sundays? 

A. In thanksgiving for the benefits of the 
week past, as also to sanctity the Lord's 

Q. 540. For what other reason? 

A. In memory that the same Christ, who 
is offered upon the altar at the mass for 

our sins, was born, rose from the dead, 
and sent down the Holy Ghost on a 

Q. 541. Why on all holydays? 

A. Either in memory of some special 
benefit, or else for a commemoration of 
some peculiar saint, so to move 
ourselves to imitate his example. 

Q. 542. How prove you that the 
church hath power to ordain and 
command feasts? 

A. First, by the example of the church in 
the apostle's time, which ordained the 
feast of Christmas in honour of the 
Nativity of Christ; Easter in honour of 
his resurrection; Whitsuntide, in honour 
of the coming of the Holy Ghost, in 
tongues of fire. 


Secondly, out of St. Clement, the disciple 
of St. Peter, in his eighth book of 
apostolical constitutions, where he 
witnesseth. "That the apostles gave 
order for the celebrating of St. Stephen's 
and some other of their fellow apostles' 
days after their deaths." 

Thirdly, out of 2 Thess. iii. 4. "And we 
have confidence concerning you in the 
Lord, that the things which we 
command, you both do, and will do." 
And ver. 14. "And if any man obey not 
our word by this epistle, note that man, 
and do not keep company with him, he 
maybe ashamed." 

Fourthly, out of 1 Thess. iv. 8, where St. 
Paul, (speaking of the precepts he had 
given his brethren,) saith, "He that 
despiseth these things, despiseth not 
man, but God, who also hath given his 
Holy Spirit in us." See what was said 
before in the third commandment of 

The Second Precept of the 
Church Expounded 

Q. 543. WHAT is the second 
commandment of the church? 

A. To fast Lent, Vigils commanded, 
Ember days, and with abstinence from 
flesh on Fridays and Saturdays. 

Q. 544. Why Lent? 

A. In imitation of Christ our Lord, who 
fasted forty days and forty nights in the 
desert for our sins, without once eating 
or drinking. 

Q. 545. Can we fast in this 

A. We cannot; but we must do at least 
what we are able. 

Q. 546. How prove you fasting to 
be a pious practice? 

A. By the example of Christ and his 
Saints, and out of Luke ii. 37, where we 
read, "That Anna the prophetess 
departed not from the temple serving 
day and night by fasting and prayer." 

Q. 547. How prove you fasting to 
me meritorious? 

A. Out of Matt. vi. 16, 17, 18. "And when 
you fast, be not sad, like the hypocrites; 
but anoint thy head, and wash thy face, 
that thou appear not unto men to fast, 
but to thy Father which is in secret, and 
thy Father who seeth in secret, will 
repay thee." 

Q. 548. How prove you abstinence 
from certain meats to be 

A. Because it was proscribed by an angel 
to St. John. "He shall be great before the 
Lord, wine and cider he shall not drink." 
Luke i. 15. And in Matt. iii. 4, we read, 
"That his food was locusts and wild 

Q. 549. For what is fasting 

A. For the remission of sins and 
appeasing the wrath of God, according 
to that, "Be ye converted unto me in 
your whole heart, in fasting, weeping, 
and mourning," Joel ii. 12. To mortify all 
the lustful desires of the flesh; and that 
it hath special force against the Devil: 
"This kind of devil (saith our Lord) can 
go out by nothing but by prayer and 
fasting," Mark ix. 29. 

Q. 550. Why Vigils? 

A. To prepare ourselves for a devout 
keeping the feasts that follow. 

Q. 551. Why Ember-days? 

A. Because on those days the church 
giveth Holy orders and ordained priests; 


and for that cause hath dedicated them 
to public prayers and fasting. 

Q. 552. What ground have you for 

A. Out of Acts xiii. 2, 3. "And as they (the 
apostles) were ministering to our Lord, 
and fasting, the Holy Ghost said, 
Separate ye unto me Saul and Barnabas 
to the work whereto I have them. Then 
with fasting and praying, and imposing 
hand on them, they dismissed them." 

Q. 553. Why abstinence on 

A. In memory that Christ suffered for us 
upon a Friday; drinking gall and vinegar 
on the cross; but especially by custom, 
which is a good as law. 

Q. 554. Why abstinence on 

A. To prepare ourselves for a devout 
keeping of the Sunday, as also in honour 
of the blessed Virgin Mary, who stood 
firm in faith on that day, the apostles 
themselves wavering. 

The Third Precept of the 
Church Expounded 

Q. 555. WHAT is the third 
commandment of the church? 

A. To confess our sins at least once a 

Q. 556. Why was that commanded? 

A. Because otherwise, libertines would 
not have done it once in many years. 

The Fourth Precept of the 
Church Expounded 

Q. 557. WHAT is the fourth? 

A. To receive the blessed Sacrament at 
least once a year, and that at Easter, or 

Q. 558. Why at Easter? 

A. Because Christ instituted the blessed 
Sacrament of the Eucharist at his last 
supper, the Thursday before Easter day. 

Q. 559. What said it, or 

A. Because it will satisfy the precept, if it 
be done at any time between Palm 
Sunday and Low-Sunday. 

The Fifth Precept of the 
Church Expounded 

Q. 560. WHAT is the fifth? 

A. To pay tithes to our pastors. 

Q. 561. Why so? 

A. Because as they feed us spiritually, it 
is fit we should feed them corporally. 

Q. 562. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Gal. vi. 6. Let him that is 
catechised in the word communicate to 
him that catechised him, in all his goods. 
And 1 Cor. ix. 13, 14. They that serve the 
altar participate with the altar, and so 
the Lord ordained that they who preach 
the gospel should live by the gospel. 

The Sixth Precept of the 
Church Expounded 

Q. 563. WHAT is the sixth? 

A. Not to solemnize marriage on times 
prohibited that is, from the first Sunday 
of Advent, until Twelfth day be past, nor 
from Ash-Wednesday, until Low-Sunday 
be past. 


Q. 564. Why so? 

A. Because those are times of special 
piety and penance, and should not 
therefore be spent in feasting, or carnal 

Q. 565. What sin is to break any of 
these church commandments? 

A. A mortal sin of disobedience, 
according to that "He that will not hear 
the church, let him be unto thee as a 
heather and a publican." Matt. xvii. 17. 

Chapter 10. 

The Council of Christ and his Church Expounded 

Q. 566. HOW many councils are 

A. There be three principle ones. 

The First Counsel 

Q. 567. What is the first of them? 

A. Voluntary poverty, which is observed 
by willingly leaving all things to follow 

Q. 568. How prove you that to be a 
work of perfection? 

A. Out of Matt. xix. 21. "If thou wilt be 
perfect, go, sell what thou hast, and give 
to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure 
in heaven, and come and follow me." 

Q. 569. How prove you this to be 

A. Out of the same chap. ver. 27, 28, 29, 
"When Peter, answering, said to him: 
Behold, we have left all things, and have 
followed he: what, therefore, shall we 
have? And Jesus said to them: Amen I 
say to you, that you, who have followed 
me, in the regeneration, when the Son of 
man shall sit on the seat of his majesty, 
you also shall sit on twelve seats judging 
the twelve tribes of Israel. And every one 
that hath left house, or brethren, or 

sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or 
lands for my name's sake, shall receive a 
hundredfold and shall possess life 

The Second Counsel 

Q. 570. WHAT is the second 

A. Perpetual chastity; which is a 
voluntary abstaining from marriage, and 
all carnal pleasures, for the love of God. 

Q. 571. Is this also a work of 

A. It is, for Christ himself was born of a 
virgin, and counseled virginity, though 
he commanded it not. 

Q. 572. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Matt. xix. 12. "There be 
eunuchs, (said he,) which have made 
themselves so for the kingdom of 
heaven; he that can take let him take." 

Q. 573. How prove you that 
virginity is a more prefect state 
than marriage, or that it is lawful 
to vow virginity? 

A. Out of 1 Cor. vii. 37, 38. "He that hath 
determined in his heart, being settled, 


not having any necessity, but having 
power of his own will to keep his virgin, 
doth well; therefore he that joineth his 
virgin in marriage doth well, but he that 
joineth her not, doth better" 

Q. 574. What other proof have 

A. Out of 1 Tim. v. 5. "But she that is a 
widow indeed, (that is, a vowed widow,) 
and desolate, let her hope in God, and 
continue in prayer and supplications 
night and day." And ver. 11, 12. "But the 
younger widows avoid, for they, when 
they shall be wanton in Christ, will 
marry, having damnation, because they 
have made void their first faith, that is, 
their vow of chastity, according to the 
fourth council of Carthage, Canon 104, 
and all the Fathers." 

Q. 575. Who was the first that 
taught marriage to be better than 
virginity, and persuaded priests 
and nuns to marry? 

A. Jovinian, an old condemned Heretic, 
according to St. Augustin, in his book 
Heresies, Her. 82, and in his 2d book of 
Retractions, he calls him a monster for 
it, and saith the church stoutly resisted 
him, chap. 22. 

The Third Counsel 

Q. 576. WHAT is the third counsel? 

A. Obedience, which is a voluntary 
submission to another's will, and in all 
that is not sin. 

Q. 577. What warrant have you for 

A. First the example of Christ himself, 
who was obedient to our Lady and St. 
Joseph, "And he went down with them 
and came to Nazareth, and was subject 
to them." Luke ii. 51. 

Secondly, Heb. xiii. 17. "Obey your 
prelates, and be subject to them; for they 
watch, being to render an account for 
your souls." 

Chapter 11. 

Of the Sacraments in general 

Q. 578. HOW many Sacraments 
are there? 

A. Seven. 

Q. 579. How call you them? 

A. Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, 
Penance, Extreme Unction, Holy Order, 
and Matrimony. See the Council of 
Trent, Sess. 7. Can. 1. 

Q. 580. Is there any cause why the 
number of Sacraments should be 

A. Yes; a probable cause is the 
proportion which is between spiritual 
and corporal life. 

Q. 581. In what consists this 

A. In this; that as in a corporal and 
nature life, there be seven principle or 
chief necessities, so are there likewise 


seven spiritual, to which the seven 
Sacraments correspond. 

Q. 582. What is our first corporal 

A. To be born into this world: to this 
baptism corresponds, by which we are 
regenerated unto God, and born the 
heirs of God and co-heirs of Christ. 

Q. 583. What is the second 
corporal necessity? 

A. To be confirmed in our strength and 
growth, without which we can never be 
made men: to this answers 
confirmation, by which we are made 
strong and perfect Christians, able to 
profess our faith before our enemies. 

Q. 584. What is our third corporal 

A. That (being now made men) we have 
a competence of daily food and 
sustenance; to which the blessed 
Eucharist corresponds, by which our 
souls are fed with divine grace as often 
as we worthily receive it, or offer it with 
the priest on the altar. 

Q. 585. What is the fourth 
necessity of the body? 

A. That we have physic when we are sick 
and wounded; to this the sacrament of 
penance answers; by which our maladies 
and sores of sin are healed. 

Q. 586. What is our fifth necessity 
of the body? 

A. That we have the necessary helps 
against the agonizing pangs of death; to 
this corresponds extreme unction, by 
which our soul is strengthened in her 
last agony, against the violent assaults of 
the devil. 

Q. 587. What is the sixth corporal 

A. "That we be governed by laws and 
magistrates, so to avoid injustice and 
confusion:" to this Holy Order 
corresponds, by which we are provided 
with spiritual magistrates to guide and 
govern us. 

Q. 588. What is the seventh 
corporal necessity? 

A. That we be multiplied in a lawful 
manner; and to this matrimony 
corresponds, by which we are not only 
multiplied in a natural, but in a holy and 
sacramental way. 

Q. 589. What is a Sacramental in 

A. It is a visible sign of invisible grace, 
divinely instituted by Christ, for our 

Q. 590. How prove you that Christ 
ordained them all? 

A. Because it is not in the power of any 
pure creature to give infallible virtue, 
causing grace, to sensible and material 
things, such as the sacraments are; 
according to the council of Trent, Sess. 

7. Can. 1. 

Q. 591. From what have the 
Sacraments their force and 

A. From the blood and passion of Christ, 
which they apply to our souls. 

Q. 592. How prove you that? 

A. Rom. vi. 3. "Know you not that all 
that we who are baptized in Christ 
Jesus, are baptized in his death?" Rom. 
v. 9. "Much more therefore, now being 
justified in his blood, shall we be saved 
from wrath by him." 

Q. 593. For what end did Christ 
ordain the Sacraments? 


A. To be external and visible marks and 
professions of his holy faith, by which 
the faithful might be known from 
Infidels and Heretics; and also to be 
effectual means of our salvation, and 
certain remedies against sin. 

Q. 594. What things are essential 
to a Sacrament? 

A. Matter and form. 

Q. 595 * Do all the seven 
Sacraments give grace? 

A. They do, according to the council of 
Trent, Sess. 7. 

Q. 596. What is grace? 

A. It is a supernatural quality produced 
in our souls and inherent in them, by 
which we are made the adopted children 
of God, special partakers of the divine 
nature, and like to God, in some degree; 
as iron is made like to fire by heat. 

Q. 597. How many of these 
Sacraments give character? 

A. Three: Baptism, Confirmation, and 
Holy Order. 

Q. 598. What is a sacramental 

A. It is a supernatural mark in the soul, 
whereby be are marked for God's 
servants, which can never be blotted out. 

Q. 599. In what manner do the 
sacraments give and cause grace? 

A. As a means or instruments only; for 
God is always the principal cause 

Q. 600. Who is the ordinary 
minister of a Sacrament? 

A. A priest; excepting Holy Orders and 
Confirmation, which are referred to the 
Bishops alone. 

Q. 601. Why did Christ confine the 
administration of the Sacraments 
to the Hierarchy and to the priests 

A. "O the depth of the riches, of the 
wisdom and of the knowledge of God! 
How incomprehensible are his 
judgments, and how unsearchable his 
ways! For who hath known the mind of 
the Lord? Or who hath been his 
counsellor?" Rom. xi. And we know 
from St. Paul, Ephes. iv. 11, that "Christ 
gave indeed some to be apostles, and 
some prophets, and others evangelists, 
and others pastors and teachers. That 
we may not now be children, tossed to 
and fro, and carried about with every 
wind of doctrine, in the wickedness of 
men, in craftiness by which they lie in 
wait to deceive." Hence, St. Paul, 
speaking of the Sacraments, says, 1 Cor. 
iv. 1. "So let them consider us as the 
ministers of Christ and dispensers of the 
mysteries of God." "And we are (2 Cor. v. 
20.) therefore ambassadors of Christ: 
God, as it were, exhorting by us." 

Q. 602. Is the intention of the 
ministers to do what Christ 
ordained, a condition, without 
which the Sacraments subsist not? 

A. It is; also the intention of the receiver 
to receive what Christ ordained, if he be 
at the years of understanding? 

Q. 603. Why say you, If he be at the 
years of understanding? 

A. Because for infants in the Sacraments 
of baptism the intention of the Church 

Baptism Expounded 

Q. 604. WHY is Baptism the first 


A. Because by it we are born again, or 
created anew in Christ Jesus, and 
therefore before it we are not capable of 
receiving any other. 

Q. 605. What is Baptism? 

A. It is an exterior washing of the body, 
under a set form of words. 

Q. 606. What is the necessary 
matter of Baptism? 

A. Natural water only; for artificial water 
will not suffice. 

Q. 607. What is the form of it? 

A. I baptize thee in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 

Q. 608. What if a man leave out the 
word, (I baptize) or any of the 
three persons? 

A. Then the baptism is invalid. 

Q. 609. Where did Christ express 
the form of baptism and give a 
command to baptize? 

A. In Matt, xxvii. 29. "Go therefore, 

(saith he) teach ye all nations, baptizing 
them in the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 

Q. 610. Can a man be saved 
without baptism? 

A. He cannot, unless he have it either 
actual or in desire, with contrition, or to 
be baptized in his blood as the holy 
Innocents were, which suffered for 

Q. 611. How prove you that? 

A. Out of John iii. 5. "Unless a man be 
born again of water, and the Holy Spirit, 
he cannot enter into the kingdom of 

Q. 612. Can no man but a priest 

A. Yes, in case of necessity, any layman 
or woman may do it, and not otherwise. 

Q. 613. What is a chief necessity? 

A. When a child is in danger of death, 
and a priest cannot be had. 

Q. 614. What are the effects of 

A. It makes us the children of God, and 
remits both original and actual sin, if he 
that is baptized be guilty of it. 

Secondly, it infuseth justifying grace into 
the soul, with habits of faith, hope, and 

and all supernatural gifts and virtues. 

Q. 615. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Gal. iii. 27. "As many of you as 
are baptized in Christ, have put on 
Christ." Secondly, out of 1 Cor. vi. 10,11 
where speaking of fornicators, idolaters, 
thieves, adulterers, and liars "These 
things, (saith St. Paul) ye were, but ye 
are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye 
are justified in the name of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and in the spirit of God." 

Thirdly, out of Tit. v. 6, 7. "He hath 
saved us by the laver of regeneration 
and renovation of the Holy Ghost, whom 
he hath abundantly poured out upon us, 
by Jesus Christ our Saviour, that being 
justified by his grace we may be heirs, 
according to the hope of life 

Q. 616. What other effect hath 

A. It makes a spiritual mark or character 
in the soul, which shall remain for ever, 
either to our great joy in heaven, or our 
confusion in hell. 


Q. 617. What sin is it to baptize a 
man twice? 

A. A mortal sin of sacrilege. 

Q. 618. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Heb. vi. 4, 5, 6. "It is 
impossible for those that have been 
illuminated, and made partakers of the 
Holy Ghost, (to wit, by baptism) and are 
fallen, &c. to be renewed again unto 
penance," &c. viz. by a second baptism. 

Q. 619. What if a man die for the 
faith, before he can be baptized? 

A. He is a true martyr, and baptized in 
his own blood. 

Q. 620. Why have we a Godfather 
and a Godmother in baptism? 

A. That if our parents should neglect it, 
or be prevented by death, they may 
instruct us in the faith of Christ, which 
obligation lies on them. 

Q. 621. How many godfathers may 
we have? 

A. But one godfather and one 
godmother, since the council of Trent. 

Q. 622. Why so few? 

A. To prevent the too great spread of 
spiritual affinity, which is contracted 
between them and their godchild, and 
his father and mother, which is an 
impediment, that makes the marriage 
not only unlawful, but also invalid 
between the parties. 

Q. 623. How can infants be 
christened, which have no actual 

A. In the faith of the Church, and of their 
godfathers and godmothers. 

Q. 624. Who do we use so many 
ceremonies in baptism? 

A. To stir up reverence to the sacrament, 
and signify its inward effects. 

Q. 625. What meaneth the priest's 
breathing on the child's face, 
according to the use of some 

A. It signifies, that by baptism, the evil 
spirit is cast out, and the spirit of God is 
given him. 

Q. 626. Why is the child signed on 
the breast and forehead with the 
sign of the Cross? 

A. To signify that he is there made the 
servant of Christ crucified. 

Q. 627. Why is salt put into the 
child's mouth? 

A. To signify, that by baptism he 
receives grace and gifts to preserve his 
soul from corruption of sin: and to warn 
Christians, that their actions and words 
ought to be seasoned with prudence and 
discretion signified by salt. 

Q. 628. Why doth the priest lay 
spittle on his ears and nostrils? 

A. Because Christ by so doing, healed 
one that was both deaf and dumb; as 
also to signify, that by baptism his ears 
are opened to the word of faith, and his 
nostrils to the good odour of all 
Christian virtues. 

Q. 629. Why doth the priest ask the 
child, "If he renounce the Devil, 
and his pomps?" 

A. To signify, that he who will be the 
child of God, cannot be the child of the 


Q. 630. What means the several 
anointing of the child? 

A. They signify the interior anointings, 
or unction of divine grace, given to the 
soul in baptism. 

Q. 631. What mean they in 

A. He anointed on the head to signify, 
"that by baptism he is made partaker of 
the kingly dignity of Christ;" on the 
shoulders to signify, "he must bear his 
Cross courageously," on the breast, to 
signify, "that the heart is there 
strengthened with grace, to fight against 
the Devil." 

Q. 632. What signifies the white 
garment given to the child? 

A. The purity and innocence which he 
there receives. 

Q. 633. What signifies the 
hallowed light given to the child? 

A. The light of faith, and fire of charity 
with which his soul is endued by 
baptism; and that he is bound to hold up 
through life the lamp of good works, 
always burning, always shining before 
men, that they may glorify our Father 
who is in Heaven. 

Confirmation Expounded 

Q. 634. WHAT is the second 

A. Confirmation. 

Q. 635. When did Christ ordain 
this Sacrament? 

A. The time is not certain; but divines 
most probably hold, it was instituted at 
Christ's last supper. 

Q. 636. What is the matter of the 

A. Oil, mingled with balm, blessed by a 

Q. 637. What is the form of it? 

A. I sign thee with the sign of the Cross, 

I confirm thee with the chrism of 
salvation, in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 

Q. 638. What scripture have you 
for this Sacrament? 

A. First, 2 Cor. i. 22. "And he that 
confirmeth us with you in Christ, and 
hath anointed us, is God, who also hath 
sealed us (with the spiritual character) 
and given the pledge of the spirit in our 

Secondly, Acts viii. 14, 15, 16, where 
when Philip the deacon had converted 
the city of Samaria to the faith, the 
apostles who were at Jerusalem, sent to 
two bishops, St. Peter and St. John, to 
confirm them; "who when they were 
come (saith the text) prayed for them, 
that they might receive the Holy Ghost; 
for he was not yet come upon any of 
them, but they were only baptized in the 
name of our Lord Jesus; then did they 
impose their hands upon them, and they 
received the Holy Ghost." 

Thirdly, Acts xix. 5,6, where we read that 
St. Paul baptized and confirmed about 
twelve of St. John's disciples: "Hearing 
these things, they were baptized in the 
name of our Lord Jesus; and when St. 
Paul had imposed hands on them, the 
Holy Ghost came upon them." 

Q. 639. Why is oil used in this 

A. To signify that the principal and 
proper effect of it, is the interior unction 
of the Holy Ghost, which makes us 
perfect Christians, and able to profess 
our faith before persecuting tyrants. 


Q. 640. Why is balm used in it? 

A. To signify the good odour of a 
Christian name, according to that, "We 
are a good odour of Christ to God." 2 
Cor. ii. 15. 

Q. 641. In what appears the effects 
of confirmation? 

A. In the undaunted confidence and 
sufferings of the apostles, martyrs, and 
saints of God, after they had received it. 

Q. 642. When were the apostles 

A. On Whitsunday, in an extraordinary 
manner, the Holy Ghost descended 
upon them in tongues of fire. 

Q. 643. Doth confirmation give a 

A. It doth, according to 2 Cor. i. 22, 
above cited, where we read "who also 
has sealed us," (that is, with a 

Q. 644. Who is the minister of this 

A. A bishop only, as appears by Acts viii, 
above cited, where two bishops were 
sent into Samaria, to give it. 

Q. 645. Is there any necessity for 
this Sacrament? 

A. There is a moral necessity for it, 
according to the council of Laodicea, 

Can. 48: "Those that have been baptized, 
must after baptism receive the most holy 
chrism, and be made partakers of the 
heavenly kingdom." 

Q. 646. What authority of fathers 
and school divines have you for its 

A. First, the authority of St. Thomas, 
who in the Sacrament of confirmation, 

3P. Q.72, Art. 8, ad 4, affirms that it is a 
dangerous thing to die without it. 

Secondly, that of St. Jerome, in his 
epistles against the Luciferians. "Dost 
thou not know also (saith he) that this is 
the custom of the churches, that hands 
should be imposed on such as they have 
been baptized, and so the Holy Ghost be 
invocated? Dost thou require to know 
where it is written? In the acts of the 
apostles, and though there were no 
authority of scripture for it, yet the 
consent of the whole world in this 
behalf, would be equal to a precept; for 
many other things also which are 
observed in the churches by tradition, 
do usurp unto themselves the authority 
of a written law." You see he owns it to 
be commanded in the scripture; and tho 
it were not so, yet to be equal to a 
precept, and have the authority of a 
written law, because it is an apostolical 
tradition, that such as have been 
baptized, must also be confirmed. 

Q. 647. What authority of Popes 
have you for it? 

A. First, that of St. Clement, pope and 
martyr, in his epistle to Julius, "All must 
make haste, (mark the word must) 
without delay to be regenerated to God, 
and at length consigned (confirmed) by 
a bishop; that is, to receive the same 
seven-fold grace of the Holy Ghost." His 
reason is, first, "Because the end of 
every one's life is uncertain," secondly, 
"Because otherwise he that is baptized, 
cannot be a perfect Christian, nor have a 
seat among the perfect; if not by 
necessity, he shall remain and not have 
that confirmation, which we have 
received from blessed Peter, and all the 
rest of the apostles have taught, or Lord 
commanding," Secondly, that of Pope 
Melchiades, teaching "That baptism and 
confirmation can by no means be 


separated one from another, unless by 
death prevented, and that one of them 
cannot rightly be perfected without the 
other. And moreover, that as 
confirmation is given by greater men, so 
it is to be held in greater veneration than 
baptism," see De Cons., Dist 5, Cap. De 

Add to this, that without confirmation 
(according to all the fathers) we are not 
perfect Christians. 

Q. 648. What then would you think 
of those, who for particular and 
private ends, should slight this 
Sacrament, and teach the laity not 
to receive it, when they might 
conveniently have it? 

A. Truly I think they would slight the 
mission of the Holy Ghost, (for this 
Sacrament is a continuance of that 
mission unto us) and would be great 
enemies of Christianity. 

Q. 649. What sin is it not to receive 
it, when we may conveniently have 

A. Mortal sin, if it be done out of 
contempt, or any gross neglect, 
especially in a place of persecution. 

Q. 650. How prove you that? 

A. Because by so doing we expose 
ourselves to great danger of denying the 
faith, against which danger, it was 
peculiarly ordained by Christ our Lord. 

Q. 651. At what age is confirmation 
now commonly received? 

A. At seven years old. 

Q. 652. Why not sooner? 

A. That so we may be able to prepare 
ourselves for it, and remember what we 
have received it; for it can not be twice 

Q. 653. Why is a little blow given 
on the cheek to him that is 

A. To signify he is there made the soldier 
of Christ, and must be ready to suffer 
stripes and buffets for his sake. 

Q. 654. Must we have any 
godfathers in confirmation? 

A. Only one godfather or godmother. 

Q. 655. Must it be received fasting? 

A. That is expedient, (for so the apostles 
received) but not necessary. 

The Eucharist Expounded 

Q. 656. WHAT is the third 

A. The blessed Eucharist, or the 
Sacrament of the body and blood of 

Q. 657. By what was this 
Sacrament prefigured in the old 

A. By the tree of life, the burning bush, 
Mechisedech's bread and wine, the 
Paschal Lamb, and the heavenly manna. 

Q. 658. Doth the blessed Eucharist 
excel all these in dignity? 

A. It doth, as far as the substantial body 
excels a shadow. 

Q. 659. What signifies the name 

A. It signifies good grace, or 
thanksgiving, because it contains the 
author and fountain of grace, and the 
greatest gift of God to man. 

Q. 660. When did Christ ordain 
the blessed Eucharist? 

A. At his last supper. 


Q. 661. Why so? 

A. To leave to his church, as the last and 
greatest pledge of his love. 

Q. 662. What is the blessed 

A. It is the body and blood of Jesus 
Christ, true God, and true man, under 
the outward forms of bread and wine. 

Q. 663. In what manner is Christ 
present under these forms? 

A. By the true and real presence of his 
divine and human nature. 

Q. 664. How prove you that? 

A. First out of Matt. xxvi. 27, 28. Christ 
at his last supper, took bread and 
blessed it, brake it and gave it to his 
disciples, saying, "Take eat, this is my 
body. And he blessed the cup saying, 
This is my blood of the New Testament 
which shall be shed for many to the 
remission of sins," Mark xiv. 22, 24. 

Secondly, out of Luke xxii. 19, 20. "This 
is my body which is given for you, this is 
the chalice of the New Testament in my 
blood, which shall be shed for you." 

Thirdly, out of John vi. 52, 53, 54. "The 
bread which I give is my flesh, for the 
life of the world; by flesh is meat indeed, 
and my blood is drink indeed; unless 
you eat the flesh of the Son of man, and 
drink his blood, you shall have no life in 

Fourthly, out of 1 Cor. xi. 23, where St. 
Paul tells us, "He received from our 
Lord," (viz. by special revelation) that at 
his last supper he blessed bread, saying, 
"Take ye and eat, this is my body which 
shall be delivered up for you; this chalice 
is the New Testament in my blood." 

Q. 665. By what means is the body 
and blood of Christ made under 
the outward forms of bread and 

A. By the real conversion or change of 
the whole substance of the body and 
blood of Christ; which conversion is 
wrought by the most holy and powerful 
words of consecration, instituted by 
Christ, and spoken by the priest, and is 
fitly called Transubstantiation, by the 
councils of Lateran and Trent; which 
signifies a passage or conversion of one 
substance into another. 

Q. 666. Is there any scripture for 

A. The word Transubstantiation is not 
found in scripture, but for the thing 
signified by it, there are those places in 
scripture, which prove a real presence, 
because those words, This is my Body, 
spoken by Christ, after he had taken 
bread into his hands, and signifying that 
to be his body, which before was bread, 
cannot be true, without the change of 
bread into his body; which change is (as 
I have said already) the thing signified 
or meant by Transubstantiation. Nor 
may the word be lawfully rejected for 
not being found in scripture more than 
other words used by the church, to 
explain mysteries of faith; as the word, 
Trinity or Consubstantiality of God the 
Son with God the Father, which are not 
found in scripture. 

Q. 667. What mean you by these 
species or accidents which remain 
after the substance of the bread is 

A. The colour, taste, and quality of 


Q. 668. Is the body of Christ 
divided or broken, when we divide 
or break the Sacrament? 

A. It is not, for "he is now immortal and 
impassible, he cannot die nor suffer any 
more." 9. 

Q. 669. What other reason have 

A. Because Christ is whole in the whole 
host, and whole in every particle thereof, 
if you divide or break it; seeing that 
wherever there would have been bread 
before consecration, there must needs 
be the whole body and blood of Christ 
after consecration. 

Q. 670. What example have you for 

A. The Soul of Man, which is whole in 
the whole body, and whole in every part 
of the body, as learned Protestants 
neither do nor can deny. 

Q. 671. How can the same thing be 
in many several places at once? 

A. By the omnipotent power of God, by 
which he himself is in all, and every one 
of his creatures at the same instant. 

Q. 672. What example have you for 

A. A word, which being one, yet is in 
many hundreds of places at once. Out of 
Acts ix. 4, 5, where we read, that Christ, 
who is always sitting at the right hand of 
the Father in Heaven (as we willingly 
admit with the Protestants) appeared 
notwithstanding, and discoursed with 
St. Paul on earth, saying, "Saul, Saul, 
why dost thou persecute me?" And when 
St. Paul replied, "Who art thou, Lord? 

He answered, I am Jesus whom thou 
dost persecute." Therefore, he was then 
in two places at once. 

Q. 673. What is the necessary 
matter of the Eucharist? 

A. Wheaten bread and wine of the grape. 

Q. 674. What is the essential form 
of it? 


Q. 675. Why is a little water 
mingled with the wine in the 

A. To signify the blood and water 
flowing from the side of Christ; as also, 
the union of the faithful with Christ, by 
virtue of the Sacrament. 

Q. 676. What dispositions is 
required in him that receives the 

A. That he hath first confessed his sins, 
and be in the state of grace. 

Q. 677. How prove you that? 

A. Out of 1 Cor. xi. 28. "Let a man prove 
himself and so let him eat of this bread 
and drink of this cup. For he that eateth 
and drinketh unworthily, eateth an 
drinketh damnation to himself, not 
discerning the body of our Lord." 

Q. 678. What are the effects of the 

A. It replenisheth the soul with grace, 
and nourisheth it in spiritual life: "He 
that eateth of this bread, shall live for 
ever," John vi. 58. 

Q. 679. What other benefit have we 
by it? 

A. It is a most moving and effectual 
commemoration of the incarnation, 
nativity, passion, resurrection, and 
ascension of Christ. 


Q. 680. How do you prove it lawful 
for the laity, to communicate 
under one kind only? 

A. First, because there is no command in 
scripture for the laity to do it under 
both, though there be for priests in those 
words, "Drink ye all of this." Matt. xxvi. 
27, which was spoken to the apostles 
only and by them fulfilled; for it follows 
in Mark xiv. 23. "And they all drank." 2. 
Out of John vi. 58, "He that eateth of 
this bread, shall live for ever," therefore, 
one kind sufficeth. 3. Out of Acts xx. 7, 
where we read, "That the faithful were 
assembled on the first of the sabbath to 
break bread," without any mention of 
the cup; and the two disciples in 
Emmaus, "knew Christ in the breaking 
of bread," where the cup is not 
mentioned. And St. Paul, 1 Cor. xi. 27. 
"Wherefore whosoever shall eat this 
bread, or drink the chalice of the Lord 
unworthily shall be guilty of the body 
and blood of the Lord." 

Q. 681. What is the exterior visible 

A. It a most necessary act of religion 
whereby some sensible thing is offered 
to God by a priest, in order to 
acknowledge his supreme dominion 
over us, and our entire dependence on 
him. It is offered to God as an act of pure 
adoration, or to render him thanks for 
his benefits received, or to turn away his 
anger, or to obtain from him some new 
blessing, or for all those purposes 

Q. 682. Is the blessed Eucharist a 

A. It is a clean oblation, which the 
prophet Malachy i. 11, foretold would be 
offered from the rising to the going 
down of the sun, in every place among 
the Gentiles; which was prefigured by 

Melchisedech, priest of the Most High 
(Gen. xiv. 18,) when he brought forth 
bread and wine; and which was, in 
reality, instituted at the last supper by 
Jesus Christ, when he took bread and 
wine, blessed them, and distributed 
them with his own hands amongst the 
apostles, saying, THIS IS MY BODY; 
THIS IS MY BLOOD. Christ Jesus is a 
priest for ever, according to the order of 
Melchisedech (Heb. v. 8,) and so he 
instituted, according to his order; that is 
to say, in bread and wine, this great 
sacrifice of the NEW LAW. 

All the Holy Popes, and Fathers, and 
Councils of the primitive ages, teach that 
the mass is the self same sacrifice of 
bread and wine that had been instituted 
by our Saviour; whilst the histories and 
annals of all countries, not excepting 
England herself, declare that the Holy 
Mass, but no other sacrifice, came down 
to them as a part and parcel of 
Christianity, from the apostolic age. 

Q. 683. Why are the priests obliged 
to receive under both kinds? 

A. Because they offer sacrifice, and 
represent the bloody sacrifice made 
upon the cross, where the blood was 
actually divided from the body, and 
being offerers of the sacrifice, are bound 
to receive also the cup, by Christ's 
command expressed. Matt. xxvi. 27. 
"Drink ye all of this." 

Q. 684. Did the laity ever 
communicate under both kinds? 

A. They did sometimes in the primitive 
church, and may again, if holy church 
shall so appoint; but now it is prohibited 
by the church, to prevent the great 
danger of shedding the cup, neither are 
the laity in this defrauded of any thing; 
for they receive whole Christ under one 
kind, which is incomparably more than 


the pretended reformers have under 
both, who receive only a bit of baker's 
bread, with a cup of common vintner's 
wine. See "Holy Order expounded." See 
also, "The Mass expounded." eh. 22. 

Penance Expounded 

Q. 685. WHAT is the fourth 

A. Penance. 

Q. 686. What warrant have you for 
doing acts of penance? 

A. First, out of Apoc. ii. 4. "Thou hast 
left thy first charity, therefore be 
mindful from whence thou art fallen, 
and do penance?" 

Secondly, "And JESUS began to preach, 
and say, do ye penance; for the kingdom 
of heaven is at hand." Matt. iv. 17. 

Q. 687. When did Christ ordain 
this Sacrament? 

A. When he breathed on his disciples, 
saying, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost, 
whose sins ye shall forgive, they are 
forgiven and whose sins ye shall retain, 
they are retained." John xx. 22, 23. 

Q. 688. What is the matter of this 

A. The sins and confession of the 

Q. 689. What is the form of it? 

A. I absolve thee from they sins, in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost. 

Q. 690. What are the effects of it? 

A. It reconciles us to God, and either 
restores or increases grace? 

Q. 691. How prove you that? 

A. Out of John xx. 23, before cited. And 
out of John i. 9. "If we confess our sins, 
he is faithful and just to forgive us our 
sins, and cleanse us from all iniquity." 

Q. 692. How many parts hath the 
Sacrament of penance? 

A. It hath three parts; namely, 
contrition, confession, and satisfaction. 

Q. 693. What is contrition? 

A. It is a hearty sorrow for our sins, 
proceeding immediately from the love of 
God above all things, and joined with a 
firm purpose of amendment. 

Q. 694. What is attrition? 

A. It is imperfect contrition, arising from 
the consideration of the turpitude of sin, 
or fear of punishment and if it contain a 
detestation of sin, and hope of pardon, it 
is so far from being itself wicked, that 
though alone it justify not, yet it 
prepares the way to justification; and 
disposes it at least remotely towards 
obtaining God's grace in this Sacrament. 

Q. 695. What if a dying man be in 
mortal sin, and cannot have a 

A. Then nothing but perfect contrition 
will suffice, it being impossible to be 
saved, without the love of God. 

Q. 696. What is a firm purpose of 

A. It is a resolution not only to shun sin, 
but also the occasions of it. 

Q. 697. How long has confession 
been in use and practice? 

A. Ever since the Apostle's time, 
according to James, v. 16. "Confess 
therefore your sins to one another, and 


pray for one another, that you may be 
saved." And Acts xix. 18. "Many of them 
that believed came confessing and 
declaring their deeds." 

Q. 698. What is confession? 

A. It is a full, sincere, and humble 
declaration of our sins to a priest, to 
obtain absolution. 

Q. 699. Is there any special good or 
comfort to man from confession? 

A. Very great, because as to a mind 
laden with secret griefs, the best of 
comforts is to disclose her case to some 
faithful friend; so to a soul laded with 
secret sins one of the greatest comforts, 
and best remedies possible, is to have 
selected persons ordained for that end 
by Christ himself, men of singular piety 
and learning, and not questionable by 
any law of what they hear in confession, 
to whom one may confess his sins, with 
an assurance both of comfort, 
correction, and direction for the 
amendment of his faults. 

Q. 700. What are the necessary 
conditions of a good confession? 

A. That it be short, diligent, humble, 
sorrowful, sincere, and entire. 

Q. 701. How, short? 

A. By avoiding superfluous words and 

Q. 702. How, diligent? 

A. By using a competent time and care 
in the examining of our conscience. 

Q. 703. How, humble? 

A. By making our confession with 
humble hearts. 

Q. 704. How, sorrowful? 

A. By stirring up sorrow for our sins. 

Q. 705. How, sincere? 

A. By confessing our sins plainly, 
without seeking to lessen or excuse 

Q. 706. How, entire? 

A. By confessing not only in what things 
we have sinned mortally, but also how 
often, as near as we are able to 

Q. 707. What if a man do 
knowingly leave out any mortal sin 
in his confession for fear of 

A. He makes his whole confession void, 
and commits a great sacrilege by lying to 
the Holy Ghost, and abusing the 

Q. 708. How prove you that? 

A. By the example of Ananias and his 
wife Saphna, who were struck dead at 
the feet of St. Peter, for daring to lie to 
the Holy Ghost. Acts v. 5, 10. 

Q. 709. Is he that hath so done 
bound to confess all again? 

A. Yes, all that are mortal, together with 
that which he left out, and the sacrilege 
he committed. 

Q. 710. What is satisfaction? 

A. The sacramental penance, enjoined 
us by the priest at confession, (which is 
considered a part of this sacrament,) 
besides which we may also add more, for 
our own sins, by our voluntary prayers, 
fasting, or other good works, or 


Q. 711. For what do we satisfy by 
that penance? 

A. For such temporal punishments as 
remain due sometimes for our sins, after 
they are forgiven us. 

Q. 712. How do you prove that 
priests have power to impose 

A. Out of 1 Cor. vi. 3, where St. Paul 
excommunicated the incestuous 
Corinthian; "I (saith he) absent in body, 
but present in spirit, have already 
judged him that hath so done, &c. to 
deliver such a one to Satan for the 
destruction of the flesh, that the soul 
may be saved." ver. 5. 

Q. 713. How prove you that 
temporal punishments may 
remain due for our sins, after the 
sins themselves be forgiven us? 

A. First, because Adam, after his sin was 
forgiven him, was notwithstanding cast 
out of paradise for ever, and his whole 
posterity made subject unto death and 
many miseries, in punishment of that 
sin. Gen. iii. 25. 

Secondly, because David, after his sin of 
adultery was forgiven him, was 
temporally punished for it with the 
death of his child: "Our Lord (saith 
Nathan) hath taken away thy sin, 
nevertheless thy son shall die." 2 Kings 
xii. 13, 14. 

Thirdly, because "Whom our Lord loveth 
he chastiseth." Heb. xii. 6. 

Q. 714. By what other means are 
those temporal punishments 

A. By indulgences. 

Q. 715. What is an indulgence? 

A. No a pardon for sins to come, or leave 
to commit sin, (as Protestants do falsely 
and slanderously teach) but a releasing 
only of such temporal punishments, as 
remain due to those sins, which have 
already been forgiven us by penance and 

Q. 716. How doth an indulgence 
release those punishments? 

A. By the superabundant merits of 
Christ and his saints, which it applies to 
our souls by the special grant of the 

Q. 717. When did Christ give his 
church power to grant 

A. When he said to St. Peter, "To thee 
will I give the keys of the kingdom of 
Heaven, whatsoever thou shalt bind on 
earth, it shall be bound in Heaven, and 
whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, 
shall be loosed in Heaven." Matt. xvi. 19. 

Q. 718. How prove you that the 
apostles did ever use this power? 

A. Out of 2 Cor. ii. 10, where St. Paul 
remitted part of the Corinthians 
penance. "To him that is such a one 
(said he) this rebuke sufficeth, &c. 
whom you have pardoned any thing, I 
also pardon." 

Q. 719. What is required for the 
gaining an indulgence" 

A. That we perform the works enjoined 
us, and that the last part of them be 
done in a state of grace. 

Q. 720. What are those works? 

A. Fasting, prayer, and alms deeds; as 
also confession and communion. 


Extreme Unction Expounded 

Q. 721. WHAT is the fifth 

A. Extreme unction. 1 

Q. 722. When did Christ institute 

A. The time is uncertain: some think it 
was instituted at his last supper; others 
that it was done between his 
resurrection and ascension. 

Q. 723. By whom was this 
sacrament promulgated? 

A. By James, v. 13, 14, 15. "Is any man 
sick among you, let him bring in the 
priests of the church, and let them pray 
over him, anointing him with oil, in the 
name of our Lord, and the prayer of 
faith shall save the sick man, and our 

1 Unction is twofold, exterior and interior; by the 
former is the body anointed, and the latter the 
soul: there is an instance of the former in James 
v. 14, and of the latter in the parable of the ten 
virgins, Matt. xxv. The exterior anointing of the 
body is expressive of the interior unction or 
invisible grace produced in the soul. Under the 
Old Law were the priests, prophets and kings 
anointed: 1 Kings ix. 16; 2 Kings ii. 4; and 3 
Kings xix. 15. Our Blessed Redeemer is called the 
Anointed, from the Greek verb Krio which 
signifies to anoint, because God anointed hem 
with the Holy Ghost: Acts x. 38. And we are 
called Christians because we profess the law and 
doctrine of God, the Anointed; and because we 
are anointed with holy oil and chrism. The child 
is anointed at baptism, the priest in receiving 
Holy Orders, the king and queen at their 
coronation. That the Apostles anointed the sick 
is clear from Mark vi. 13, and that they taught 
the practice is clear from James v. 14. Would 
they teach or practise the rite if they had not 
commission from their Divine Master so to do? 

It is indeed extremely astonishing that the 
Protestants who pretend to be enamoured with 
the Bible would discard a rite so sanctioned in 
both Testaments and the usage of all antiquity. 
See Canons. Lib. i. cit. 15. 

Lord will lift him up, and if he be in sin 
his sins shall be forgiven him." 

Q. 724. Who is capable of this 

A. Every true and faithful Christian who 
is in mortal danger of death by sickness, 
excepting infants, fools, and such as are 
always mad. 

Q. 725. What is the matter of it? 

A. Oil blessed by a bishop. 

Q. 726. What is the form of it? 

A. "By his own anointing, and his own 
most pious mercy, our Lord pardon 
thee, whatsoever thou hast sinned by thy 
seeing," & c. And so of the other senses, 
repeating the same words. 

Q. 727. What are the effects of 
extreme unction? 

A. It comforts the soul in her last agony 
against despair, it remits venial sins and 
removes the relics of sin and restores 
corporal health, if it be expedient. 

Q. 728. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Mark vi. 13, where we read, 
That the apostles anointed with oil many 
sick, and healed them. Which anointing 
is understood by many to have been a 
previous sign of extreme unction, and 
consequently of its effects. 

Q. 729. Why then do so few recover 
after it? 

A. Either because the recovery of the 
body is not expedient for the soul, or 
because the sick deferred the sacrament 
too long, as too many do, or for the other 
indispositions in the receiver of it 


Holy Order Expounded 

Q. 730. WHAT is the sixth 

A. Holy Order. 

Q. 731. To whom doth this 

A. To the rulers and ministers of the 
church, as bishops, priests, deacons, and 

Q. 732. What proof have you for 
bishops, priests and deacons? 

A. For bishops and deacons, out of Phil, 
i. 1. "To all the saints at Philippi, (saith 
St. Paul) with the bishops and deacons," 
and for the priests out of St. James 
above cited. "Is any man sick among 
you, let him bring in the priests of the 
church." &c. 

Q. 733. Where did Christ ordain 
this Sacrament? 

A. At his last supper, where he made his 
Apostles priests, saying, "This is my 
body which is given for you; do ye this in 
commemoration of me." Luke xxii. 19. 

Q. 734. What did Christ give them 
power to do? 

A. To offer the unbloody sacrifice of his 
own body and blood, which he himself 
had there ordained, and offered under 
the outward forms of bread and wine. 

Q. 735. Why did he say, Do ye this 
in commemoration of me? 

A. Because the unbloody sacrifice of the 
Mass is a commemoration or memorial 
of the unbloody sacrifice made on the 
Cross; nay more, it is a renewal of it in 
an unbloody manner. 

Q. 736. What are the effects of holy 

A. It gives spiritual power, to ordain 
priests, to consecrate the body and 
blood of Christ, to administer the 
sacraments, serve the altar, and to 

Q. 737. What else? 

A. It gives also a spiritual grace, for the 
well-doing of these offices. 

Q. 738. How prove you that? 

A. Out of 1 Tim. iv. 14. "Neglect not the 
grace which is thine by prophecy, with 
the imposition of the hands of the 

Q. 739. What is the proper office of 
a bishop? 

A. To give holy orders and confirmation, 
to preach and govern the church. 

Q. 740. How prove you that? 

A. To confirm, out of Acts viii. above 
cited, where we read, "Two bishops were 
sent to confirm the Samaritans." 

Q. 741. How prove you that the 
bishops are of divine right and 
have authority from God to rule 
the church? 

A. Out of Acts xx. 28. "Take heed unto 
yourselves and to the whole flock, 
wherein the Holy Ghost hath made you 
bishops to rule the church of God." 

Q. 742. How prove you that the 
bishops only can ordain priests? 

A. Out of Titus i. 5. "For this cause left I 
thee in Crete, that thou shouldest order 
the things that were wanting, and ordain 
priests in every city," (he was a bishop.) 


Q. 743. What sin is it therefore to 
oppose Hierarchy and Episcopacy 
either in the whole church, or in 
particular churches? 

A. It is a sin of rebellion and high 
treason against the peace and safety of 
Christ's spiritual commonwealth, the 

Q. 744. How prove you that? 

A. Because no law can subsist without 
guards and officers for it. Since 
therefore Christ hath ordained bishops 
to be the guards and teachers of his law, 
they who strike at bishops, strike also at 
the whole law of Christ, and safety of the 

Q. 745. Why is it requisite that 
bishops and pastors should have 

A. Because they bear a considerable 
charge and office in the commonwealth, 
therefore, they ought to have a 
competence for the performance of it. 
Secondly, to enable them, as good 
soldiers of Christ Jesus, to keep clear of 
worldly cares: for "no man, being a 
soldier to God, entangleth himself with 
worldly business; that he may please 
him to whom he hath engaged himself." 

2 Tim. ii. 4. 

Q. 746. What is the office of a 

A. To offer sacrifice, and administer the 
rest of the sacraments, excepting holy 
order and confirmation. 

Q. 747. How prove you a sacrifice 
in the New Law? 

A. First, because there is a priesthood, as 
you have heard, and an altar according 
to that, "We have an altar (saith St. Paul) 
whereof they have not power to eat, who 
serve in the tabernacle." Heb. xiii. 10. 

Secondly, out of Mai. i. 11, where he 
foretold the sacrifice in the new law, 
saying, "From the rising of the sun, even 
to the going down, great is my name 
among the Gentiles, and in every place 
there is sacrificing, and there is offered 
to my name a clean oblation, saith the 
Lord of Hosts." 

Thirdly, out of Luke xxii. 19, 20, where 
Christ who is high priest for ever 
(according to the order of 
Melchesedech) offered the sacrifice of 
his own body and blood under the form 
of bread and wine, saying, "This is my 
body which is given for you, (it is given 
for us, you find at his last supper) this is 
the chalice of the New Testament in my 
blood, which chalice (according to the 
great text) is shed for you." 

Q. 748. Is it lawful for priests to 

A. It is not; there being a precept of the 
church against it, descending to us by 
tradition from the Apostles; neither did 
any of the Apostles ever accompany 
their wives, after their calling to the 
apostleship; and a vow of perpetual 
chastity being annexed to the holy 
orders, in the Latin or Western church. 

Q. 749. Why is it requisite that 
priests should live chaste and 

A. Because, as by their ordination they 
are bound to teach and instruct the 
faithful, their minds should be totally 
disengaged from the cares and pleasures 
of the world, and wholly employed in the 
study and piety of heavenly things, 
which is incompatible with the marriage 
state. 1 Cor. vii. 32. 


Q. 750. What are the lesser orders 
of the church? 

A. Acolyte, lector, exorcist, and porter, 
according to the fourth council of 
Carthage, can. 6. 

Q. 751. Is it lawful for women to 
preach, or to be priests? 

A. It is not, according to 1 Cor. xiv. 34. 
"Let women keep silence in the 
churches: for it is not permitted to them 
to speak, but to the subject, as also the 

Q. 752. It is lawful for a man to 
usurp and take upon him priestly 
power, without the ordination of 
the church? 

A. It is not, according to Heb. v. 1, 4. 

"For every high priest taken from among 
men, is appointed for men &c. that he 
may offer gifts and sacrifices for sins 
neither doth any man take the honour to 
himself, but he that is called of God, as 
was Aaron. 

Q. 753. What other proof have 

A. Out of John x. 1. "Amen I say unto 
you, he that entereth not by the door 
(Holy Order) into the fold of the sheep, 
but climbs up another way, is a thief and 
a robber." 

Q. 754. What if any man pretend 
an extraordinary calling? 

A. He must prove it by miracles, or else 
be esteemed an impostor. 

Q. 755. What examples have you 
against the usurpation of the 
priestly power? 

A. That the king Ozeas, who was 
presently struck by God with a leprosy in 
his forehead, for usurping the priestly 

office of offering or burning incense in 
the temple. 2 Paral. xxvi. 19. 

Q. 756. What besides? 

A. The example of Core, Dathan, and 
Abriam, who for usurping the office of 
priest, (though they were themselves 
true believers) were swallowed up alive 
by the earth, Numb. xvi. 32. and two 
hundred and fifty others who were 
offering incense with them, were 
consumed with fire from heaven, v. 34, 
with fourteen thousand and seven 
hundred more, which were also burnt 
with fire from heaven, for only joining 
with them, v. 49. 

Matrimony Expounded 

Q. 757. WHAT is the seventh 

A. Matrimony. 

Q. 758. Where was matrimony first 

A. In paradise by Almighty God, when 
he gave Eve as wife to Adam, who 
presently said, "Therefore a man shall 
leaven his father and his mother, and 
shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall 
be two in one flesh." Gen. ii. 22, 24. 

Q. 759. Where was it made a 
sacrament of the new law? 

A. Where and when Christ instituted 
this sacrament us uncertain; some think 
it done, or at least insinuated at the 
wedding at Cana in Galilee, where Christ 
was present, and wrought his first 
miracle, "by turning water into wine." 
John ii. Others, more probably, say it 
was done, when Christ declared the 
indissolubility of marriage, saying, 
"therefore now they are not two, but one 
flesh: that therefore which God hath 
joined together, let no man separate." 
Matt. xix. 6. 


Q. 760. Why was it requisite that 
marriage should be made a 

A. Because it is a contract whereon 
depends the chief happiness of a 
married life; as being ordained for the 
restraint of sinful concupiscence, the 
good of posterity, the well ordering our 
domestic affairs, and the education of 
our children in the fear and service of 
God, and therefore ought to be ranked in 
the highest order of those actions, which 
Christ hath sanctioned for the use of 

Q. 761. What other proof have you? 

A. Out of Ephes. v. 31, 32. "They shall be 
two in one flesh; this is the great 
sacrament. But I speak in Christ, and in 
the church." 

Q. 762. What is the matter of this 

A. The mutual consent of the parties, 
and giving themselves to one another. 

Q. 763. What are the effects of 

A. It gives special grace to the married 
couple, to love and bear on with another, 
as also to bring up their children in the 
fear and love of God. 

Q. 764. What is the principle end 
of marriage? 

A. To beget children, and bring them up 
in the service of God; and the next to 
this is, that man may have a remedy 
against concupiscence, and a helper in 
the way of salvation. 

Q. 765. How great is the tie of 

A. So great that it can never be dissolved 
but by death, as you have heard out of 
Matt. xix. 

Q. 766. What are the obligations of 
man and wife? 

A. To love, honour, and comfort one 

Q. 767. What besides? 

A. Husbands are obliged to cherish and 
comfort their wives; wives to be subject, 
obey, and love their husbands. 

Q. 768. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Col. iii. 18, 19. "Women be 
subject to your own husbands, as 
behooveth in our Lord. Men, love your 
wives, and be not bitter towards them." 
And out of Ephes. iv. 22, 23. "Let women 
be subject to their husbands, as to the 
Lord, because the man is head of the 
woman as Christ is head of the church," 
v. 24. "But as the Church is subject to 
Christ, so also women to their husbands 
in all things." And again, v. 33. "Let each 
man love his wife as himself, and let the 
wife reverence her husband. 

Q. 769. What else? 

A. To render mutually the marriage 
debt, and according to that, "Let the 
husband render his debt unto his wife, 
and the wife also in like manner to her 
husband. The women now hath no 
power of her own body, but the 
husband, and in like manner the man 
hath no power of his own body, but the 
woman." 1 Cor. vii. 3, 4. 

Q. 770. It is lawful for children to 
marry without the consent of their 

A. It is not; neither is it lawful for 
parents to force them to marry against 
their will. 


Q. 771. Why are so many unhappy 
in their marriages? 

A. Because they never consulted with 
God about them, nor sought to have his 
blessing in them. 

Q. 772. For what other reason? 

A. Because they were in the state of sin 
at their marriage, or married for 
inordinate love or wealth, and not for 
the right end of marriage. 

Q. 773. What meaneth the blessing 
of the priest given in marriage? 

A. It is to beg all blessings of God for the 
new married couple. 

Q. 774. Why is the ring put on the 
fourth finger? 

A. Because that is called the heart finger 
and hath (they say) a vein in it, with 
reacheth to the heart; so to signify the 
true and constant love which ought to be 
between man and wife. 

Q. 775. What signifies the ring 

A. It is a symbol of perfection and 
eternity, being equal in all parts, and 
round in figure, without beginning or 
end, to imitate the perfect and perpetual 
love of man and wife. 

Q. 776. What are the spiritual 
means to obtain the blessing of 
good children? 

A. Fasting, prayer, and alms-deeds, for 
so St. Joachim and St. Anne obtained 
Blessed Virgin Mary; and so the Blessed 
Virgin became the mother of God. 

Q. 777. What obligations have 
parents to their children? 

A. To instruct them in the faith of Christ, 
to bring them up in the fear of God, to 
give them good example, to keep them 
out of ill company and other occasions 
of sin, to feed and nourish them, to 
provide for them in marriage, and to 
correct their faults. 

Q. 778. What are the chief and 
most common impediments of 

A. Consanguinity and affinity, to the 
fourth degree inclusively; and in the 
right line all degrees are prohibited by 
the law of nature, indispensable. 

Q. 779. Can the church dispense in 
these collateral degrees? 

A. She can, excepting only the first 
collateral degrees of consanguinity, but 
always sufficient motives must be given. 

Q. 780. How prove you that? 

A. The Church having made these laws, 
for just reasons may dispense in them; 
but when such dispensations are given, 
those who seek them ought to consider, 
that they may deprive themselves of the 
blessings attending the marriage state, if 
the motives alleged be not well founded. 


Chapter 12. 

The Cardinal Virtues Expounded 

Q. 781. HOW many cardinal 
virtues are there? 

A. There are four: prudence, justice, 
fortitude, and temperance. 

Q. 782. Why are they called 
cardinal virtues? 

A. Because they are the fountains and as 
it were the hinges of all good works, 
from the word Cardo, which signifies a 

Q. 783. What is prudence? 

A. It is a virtue which makes us wary in 
all our actions, that we may neither 
deceive others, nor be deceived 
ourselves; or which (according to the 
rule of honesty) prescribes us what to be 
desired, and what to be avoided. 

Q. 784. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Eccles. iii. 32. "A wise heart 
that hath understanding, will keep itself 
from all sin, and in the works of justice 
shall have success." 

Q. 785. What is justice? 

A. It is a virtue which gives every man 
this own according to that, "Render to 

all men their due, to whom tribute, 
tribute; to whom custom, custom; to 
whom fear, fear; to whom honour, 
honour." Rom. xiii. 7. 

Q. 786. What is temperance? 

A. It is a virtue which moderates our 
appetites and desires, that they be 
according to reason, and not inordinate: 
"He that is abstinate, (saith the wise 
man) shall increase in life." Eccl. xxxvii. 

Q. 787. What is fortitude? 

A. It is a virtue, by which the labours 
and dangers even of death itself, that are 
opposite unto virtue, are courageously 
undertaken and patiently sustained, 

"The wicked fleeth (saith Soloman) 
when no man pursueth; but the just 
man, as a confident lion, shall be 
without fear." Prov. xxvii. 1. And in 1 Pet. 
iii. 14, we read, "The fear of them fear ye 
not, and be not troubled, but sanctify 
our Lord Christ in your hearts." 

Q. 788. Is it necessary for a 
Christian to be exercised in these 

A. It is; for "we must not only decline 
from evil, but do good," Psalm xxxvi. 27. 

Chapter 13. 

The Gifts of the Holy Ghost Expounded 

Q. 789. HOW many are the Gifts of 
the Holy Ghost? 

A. Seven: wisdom, understanding, 
counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and 
the fear of the Lord. Isa. xi. 2. 


Q. 790. What is wisdom? 

A. It is a gift of God, which teacheth us 
to direct our whole lives and actions to 
his honour, and the salvation of our 

Q. 791. What is understanding? 

A. It is a gift of God, by which we are 
enabled to comprehend the high 
mysteries of our Faith. 

Q. 792. What is counsel? 

A. It is a gift of God, by which we 
discover the frauds and deceits of the 
Devil, and are not deceived by him. 

Q. 793. What is fortitude? 

A. It is a gift of God, whereby we are 
enabled to undergo and despise all 
dangers for his sake. 

Q. 794. What is knowledge? 

A. It is a gift of God, by which we know 
and understand the will of God. 

Q. 795. What is piety? 

A. It is a gift of God, which makes us 
devout and zealous in his service. 

Q. 796. What is the fear of the 

A. It is the gift of God, which curbs our 
rashness, withholds us from sin, and 
makes us obedient to God's law. 

Chapter 14. 

The Twelve Fruits of the Holy Ghost Expounded 

Q. 797. HOW many are the fruits of 
the Holy Ghost? 

A. There are twelve, as you may see, Gal. 
v. 22, 23. 

Q. 798. What is the first? 

A. Charity, whose nature and effects you 
know already. 

Q. 799. What is the second? 

A. Joy, by which we are enabled to serve 
God with cheerful hearts. 

Q. 800. What is the third? 

A. Peace, which keeps us unmoved in 
our minds amidst the storms and 
tempests of the world. 

Q. 801. What is the fourth? 

A. Patience, which enables us to suffer 
all adversities for the love of God. 

Q. 802. What is the fifth? 

A. Longanimity, which is an untired 
confidence of mind, in expecting the 
good things of the life to come. 

Q. 803. What is the sixth? 

A. Goodness, which makes us hurt no 
man, and be good to all. 

Q. 804. What is the seventh? 

A. Benignity, which causeth an affable 
sweetness in our manners and 


Q. 805. What is the eighth? 

A. Mildness, which allays in us all the 
[ejmotions of passion and anger. 

Q. 806. What is the ninth? 

A. Fidelity, which makes us punctual 
observers of our covenants and 

Q. 807. What is the tenth? 

A. Modesty, which observes a becoming 
deportment in all our outward actions. 

Q. 808. What is the eleventh? 

A. Continency, which makes us not only 
abstemious in meat and drink, but in all 
other sensible delights. 

Q. 809. What is the twelfth? 

A. Chastity, which keeps a pure soul in a 
pure body. 

Q. 810. Who are they that have 
these fruits? 

A. The children of God only; for 
"whosoever are led by the spirit of God, 
they are the sons of God." Rom. viii. 14. 

Chapter 15. 

The Works of Mercy (corporal and spiritual) Expounded 

Q. 811. HOW many are the 
corporal works of mercy? 

A. Seven, l. To feed the hungry. 2. To 
give drink to the thirsty. 3. To clothe the 
naked. 4. To harbour the harbourless. 5. 
To visit the sick. 6. To visit the 
imprisoned. 7. To bury the dead. 

Q. 812. How prove you that these 
works are meritorious of a 

A. Because Christ hath promised the 
kingdom of Heaven as the reward of 
them. "Come, O ye blessed of my Father 
(saith he) and possess ye the kingdom, 
&c. for I was hungry, and ye gave me to 
eat," & c. Matt. xxv. 35, 36. 

Q. 813. When are we said to feed 
and clothe Christ? 

A. As often as we feed and clothe the 
poor, "What ye have done (saith he) to 

one of my little ones, that ye have done 
unto me." ver. 40. 

Q. 814. Is the reward of these 
works a reward of justice? 

A. It is; according to 2 Tim. iv. 7, 8. "I 
have fought a good fight (saith Paul) 
there is a crown of justice laid up for me, 
which our Lord will render to me at that 
day as the just judge." 

Q. 815. What other proof have 

A. Out of Heb. vi. 10. "For God is not 
unjust, that he should forget the work 
and love, which you have shown in his 
name, who have ministered unto the 
Saints, and do minister. 


Q. 816. How many are the works of 
mercy, spiritual? 

A. Seven also. 1. To give counsel to the 
doubtful. 2. To instruct the ignorant. 3. 
To admonish the sinners. 4. To comfort 
the afflicted. 5. To forgive offences. 6. To 
bear patiently the troublesome. 7. To 
pray for the quick and the dead. 

Q. 817. How prove you your prayer 
for the dead? 

A. First, out of the places before and 
after cited for purgatory. Secondly, out 
of 1 John v. 16. "He that knoweth his 

brother to sin a sin not unto death, let 
him ask, and life shall be given him, not 
sinning to death; (i.e.) to final 
impenitence. Therefore it is lawful to 
pray for all such as die penitent, 
confessing their sins." And in 2 Mac. xii. 
we read, "It is a wholesome and holy 
thought to pray for the dead, that they 
may be loosed from their sins." 

Q. 818. How show you these works 
to be meritorious? 

A. Out of Dan. xii. 3. "They who instruct 
others to justice, shall shine as stars to 
all eternity." 

Chapter 16. 

The Eight Beatitudes 

Q. 819. WHAT are the eight 

A. Christ "opening his mouth he taught 
them, saying: 1. Blessed are the poor in 
spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of 
heaven. 2. Blessed are the meek, for they 
shall possess the land. 3. Blessed are 
they that mourn: for they shall be 
comforted. 4. Blessed are they that 
hunger and thirst after justice: for they 
shall be filled. 5. Blessed are the 
merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. 6. 

Blessed are the clean of heart: for they 
shall see God. 7. Blessed are the peace- 
makers: for they shall be called the 
children of God. 8. Blessed are they that 
suffer persecution for justice sake: for 
theirs is the Kingdom of heaven." Matt. 

v. 3, 10. 

Q. 820. Whence ariseth the 
necessity of suffering persecution? 

A. Because all that will live piously in 
Jesus Christ shall suffer persecution. 2 
Tim. iii. 12. 

Chapter 17. 

The Kinds of Sin Expounded 

Q. 821. WHY is it necessary for a 
Christian to know the nature and 
kinds of sin? 

A. That so he may detest and avoid 


Q. 822. How many kinds of sins 
are there? 

A. Two, namely, Original and Actual. 

Q. 823. What is original sin? 

A. It is a privation of original justice, 
which we inherit from our first parent 
Adam, being all by course of nature, 
conceived and born in that privation or 
original sin. 

Q. 824. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Rom. v. 12. "Therefore as by 
one man sin entered into the world, and 
by sin death, and so unto all men death 
did pass, in whom all have sinned." 

Q. 825. What are the effects of 
original sin? 

A. Concupiscence, ignorance, evil 
inclination, proneness to sin, sickness, 
and death. 

Q. 826. How is original sin taken 

A. By holy baptism. 

Q. 827. Whither go infants that die 
without baptism? 

A. To a part of hell, where they endure 
the pain of loss, but not of sense, and 
shall never see the face of God. 

Q. 828. How prove you that? 

A. Out of John iii. 5. "Unless a man be 
born again of water, and the Holy Ghost, 
he cannot enter into the kingdom of 

Q. 829. What is actual sin? 

A. It is a thought, word or deed, contrary 
to the law of God. 

Q. 830. What is the sin of 

A. To omit any thing willing, which is 
commanded by God or his Church. 

Q. 831. Why is actual sin so called? 

A. Because the material part of it is 
commonly some voluntary acts of ours. 

Q. 832. Is all sin voluntary and 

A. It is, because (speaking of actual sin) 
no man sinneth in doing that which is 
not in his power to avoid. 

Q. 833. What other proof have 

A. Because the whole gospel of Christ is 
nothing else but an exhortation to do 
good, and avoid evil, than which nothing 
were more vain, if it be not the free 
election and power of man, assisted by 
God's grace, to do, or not to do such 

Q. 834. What scripture have you 
for that? 

A. First out of Gen. iv. 7. "If thou dost 
well, shalt thou not receive? But if ill, 
shall not thy sin be forthwith present at 
the door? But the lust thereof shall be 
under thee, and thou shalt have 
dominion over it." 

Secondly out of Deut. xxx. 19, 20. "I call 
heaven and earth to witness this day, 
that I have proposed to thee life and 
death, blessing and cursing, choose 
therefore life that thou mayest live." 

Thirdly, out of 1 Cor. vii. 37. "He that 
hath determined in his heart being 
settled not having necessity but having 
the power of his own will, and hath 
judged in his heart to keep his virginity, 
doth well;" (you see man hath power of 
his own will) and in Phil. iv. 13. "I can do 
all things (saith Paul) in him who 
strengtheneth me." 


Q. 835. Doth not the efficacy of 
God's grace hinder, and hurt the 
freedom of our will? 

A. No, it perfects it according to 1 Cor. 
xv. 10, 11. "I have laboured more 
abundantly (saith Paul) than all they, yet 
not I, but the grace of God within me." 
You hear the grace of God did not 
hinder, but perfect his working. 

Q. 836. How is actual sin divided? 

A. Into mortal and venial. 

Q. 837. What is mortal sin? 

A. And great offence against the love of 
God; and is so called because it kills the 
soul, and robs it of the spiritual life of 

Q. 838. What is venial sin? 

A. A small, and very pardonable offence 
against God, or our neighbour. 

Q. 839. How prove you that some 
sins are mortal? 

A. First, out of Rom. vi. 23. "For the 
wages of sin is death." And ver. xxi. 
"What fruit therefore had you then in 
these things, for which ye are now 
ashamed, for the end of them is death?" 

Secondly, out of Wis. xvi. 14. "For man 
by malice, killeth his own soul." And out 
of Ezek. xviii. 4. "The soul that sinneth, 
the same shall die." 

Q. 840. How prove you that some 
sins are venial? 

A. First, out of 1 John i. 8, where 
speaking of such as walk in the light, 
and are cleansed from all mortal sin by 
the blood of Christ, he adds, "if we stay 
we have no sin, we seduce ourselves, and 
the truth is not in us." 

Secondly, "In many things we all 
offend," James iii 2. And in Prov. xxiv. 
16. "The just man falleth seven times." 
Not mortally, for then he were no longer 
just, therefore venially. 

Thirdly, out of Matt. xii. 36. "But I say 
unto you, every idle word which men 
shall speak, they shall render an account 
for it at the day of judgment." Now God 
forbid every idle word should be a 
mortal sin. 

Q. 841. What are the effects of 
venial sin? 

A. It doth not rob the soul of life, as 
mortal sin doth, but only weakeneth the 
fervour of charity, and by degrees 
disposeth unto mortal. 

Q. 842. Why are we bound to shun 
not only mortal, but venial sins? 

A. Because "he that contemneth small 
things, shall fall by little and little." 
Eccles. xix. 1. 

Q. 843. What other proof have 

A. Because "no polluted thing shall enter 
into the heavenly Jerusalem." Apoc. xxi. 
27, be it polluted with mortal, or venial 

Q. 844. How shall we be able to 
know when any sin is mortal, and 
when but venial? 

A. Because to any mortal sin it is 
required, both that it be deliberate, and 
perfectly voluntary; and that it be a 
matter of weight against the law of God; 
one or both of which conditions are 
always wanting in a venial sin. 

Q. 845. How is mortal sin 

A. By hearty penance and contrition. 


Q. 846. How is venial sin remitted? 

A. By all the sacraments, by holy water, 
devout prayer, alms-deeds, and the like 
good works. 

Q. 847. Whither go such as die in 
venial sin, or not having fully 
satisfied for the temporal 
punishments due to their mortal 
sins which are forgiven them? 

A. To purgatory till they have made full 
satisfaction for them, and then to 

Q. 848. How prove you there is a 
purgatory, or a place of 
punishment, where souls are 
purged after death? 

Out of 1 Pet. iii. 10. "Christ being dead 
for our sins, came in spirit, and 
preached to them also that were in 
prison, who had been incredulous in the 
days of Noah, when the Ark was 

Q. 849. What other proof have 

A. Out of 1 Cor. iii. 13. "The work of 
every man shall be manifest, for the day 
of our Lord will declare it, because it 
shall be revealed in fire; and the work of 
every one of what kind it is, the fire shall 

try; If a man's work abides," (as theirs 
doth who deserve no purgatory) he shall 
suffer loss, but himself shall be saved, 
yet so as by fire." 

Q. 850. What besides? 

A. Out of Matt. v. 25. "Be thou at 
agreement with thy adversary betimes 
whilst thou art in the way with him (that 
is in this life) lest perhaps the adversary 
deliver thee to the judge, and the judge 
deliver thee to the officer, and thou be 
cast into prison (Purgatory): Amen, I say 
unto thee, thou shalt not go out from 
thence, till thou pay the last farthing." 

Q. 851. What other yet? 

A. Out of Matt. xii. 32. "Some sins shall 
neither be forgiven in this world, nor in 
the world to come." Therefore there is a 
place of purging and pardoning sins 
after this life. 

Q. 852. How is a man made guilty, 
or said to co-operate to other 
men's sins? 

A. As often as he is an actual cause of sin 
in others by any of these nine means: 1. 
By counsel. 2. By command. 3. By 
consent. 4. By provocation. 5. By praise 
or flattery. 6. By silence. 7. By 
connivance. 8. By participation; or 9. By 
defence of the ill done. 

Chapter 18. 

The Seven Deadly Sins Expounded 

Q. 853. HOW call you the seven 
deadly, or capital sins? 

A. Pride, covetousness, lechery, anger, 
gluttony, envy, and sloth. 

Pride Expounded 

Q. 854. What is pride? 

A. It is an inordinate desire of our own 
excellency or esteem. 


Q. 855. Why is pride called a 
capital sin? 

A. Because it is the head or fountain of 
many other sins. 

Q. 856. What for example? 

A. Vain-glory, boasting, hypocrisy, 
ambition, arrogance, presumption, and 
contempt of others. 

Q. 857. What is vain-glory? 

A. And inordinate desire of human 

Q. 858. What is boasting? 

A. A foolish bragging of ourselves. 

Q. 859. What is hypocrisy? 

A. Counterfeiting of more piety and 
virtue than we have. 

Q. 860. What is ambition? 

A. An inordinate desire of honour. 

Q. 861. What is arrogance? 

A. A high contempt of others, joined 
with insolence and rashness. 

Q. 862. What is presumption? 

A. An attempting of things above our 

Q. 863. What is contempt of 

A. A disdainful preferring ourselves 
before others. 

Q. 864. What other daughters hath 

A. Pertinency, discord, disobedience, 
and ingratitude. 

Q. 865. What is pertinency? 

A. A willful sticking to our own opinions, 
contrary to the judgment of our betters. 

Q. 866. What is discord? 

A. A wrangling in words, with such as we 
ought to assent and yield unto. 

Q. 867. What is disobedience? 

A. An opposition to the will or 
commands of parents and superiors. 

Q. 868. What is ingratitude? 

A. A forgetting or neglecting of benefits. 

Q. 869. How prove you pride to be 
a mortal sin? 

A. Because we read, that "God resists the 
proud, and gives this grace to the 
humble." 1 Pet. v. 5. And "pride is odious 
before God and men." Eccl. x. 7. 

Q. 870. What are the remedies of 

A. To remember that holy lesson of 
Christ, "learn of me, because I am meek 
and humble of heart." Matt. xi. 29. And 
to consider that we are sinful dust and 
shall return again to dust; and that 
whatsoever good we have to do, is the 
free gift of God. 

Q. 871. What is the virtue opposite 
to pride? 

A. Humility, which teaches us a lowly 
opinion of ourselves. "He that humbleth 
himself shall be exalted." Matt, xxiii. 12. 

Covetousness Expounded 

Q. 872. WHAT is covetousness? 

A. An inordinate desire of riches. 

Q. 873. When is covetousness a 
mortal sin? 

A. When either we desire to get unjustly 
what which is another man's of 


considerable value, or else refuse to give 
of that which is our own, to such as are 
in any extreme or great necessity. 

Q. 874. How prove you the first 

A. Out of 1 Tim. vi. 9. "They, who would 
become rich, fall into temptation, and 
into the snare of the devil, and into 
many unprofitable and hurtful desires, 
which drown men in destruction and 
perdition: for covetousness is the root of 
all evils." 

Q. 875. How prove you the latter 

A. Out of 1 John iii. 17. "He that hath the 
substance of this world, and shall see his 
brother in necessity, and shall shut up 
his bowels from him; how doth the 
charity of God abide in him?" 

Q. 876. What other proof have you 
for alms? 

A. Out of Luke xi. 41. "But yet that which 
remains, give alms, and behold all things 
are clean unto you." And out of Dan. iv. 
24. "Redeem thy sins with alms and thy 
iniquity with the mercies of the poor." 

Q. 877. What are the daughters of 

A. Hardness of heart, unmercifulness to 
the poor unquiet solicitude, neglect of 
heavenly things, and confidence in 
things of this world. 

Q. 878. What else? 

A. Usury, fraud, rapine, theft, &c. 

Q. 879. What are the remedies of 

A. To consider "that it is a kind of 
idolatry," according to Col. iii. 5. And 
that "it is harder for a rich man to enter 
into heaven, that for a camel to pass 

through the eye of a needle." Matt. xix. 

Q. 880. What are the virtues 
opposite to covetousness? 

A. Liberality, which makes a man give 
freely to the poor; and justice, which 
renders to a men that which is theirs. "It 
is a more blessed thing to give (saith our 
Lord) than to take." Acts xxvi. 35. And 2 
Cor. ix. 6, St. Paul saith, "He that soweth 
sparingly, sparingly also shall he reap; 
but he that soweth in blessings, of 
blessings also shall he reap; for God 
loves the cheerful giver." 

Lechery Expounded 

Q. 881. WHAT is lechery, or lust? 

A. An inordinate desire of carnal sin, or 
delights of the flesh. 

Q. 882. How prove you the malice 
of this sin? 

A. Because the whole world was once 
drowned, and the cities of Sodom and 
Gemorrah were burnt with fire from 
heaven for it. Gen. vii. 21, and xix. 24. 

Q. 883. What other proof have 

A. Out of Rom. viii. 13. "For if you live 
according to the flesh, you shall die; but 
if by the spirit you mortify the deeds of 
the flesh, you shall live." 

Q. 884. What are the degrees of 

A. Thought, delight, consent, and act. 

Q. 885. What are the daughters of 

A. Fornication, whoredom, adultery, 
voluntary pollution, unchaste signs and 
touches, wanton kisses and speeches. 


Q. 886. How prove you voluntary 
pollution to be a mortal sin? 

A. Out of Gen. xxxviii. 9, where we read, 
that Onan was struck dead by God in the 
place, for shedding the seed of nature 
out of the due use of marriage to hinder 
generation, which fact the holy text calls 
a destestable thing. He also who was 
eldest brother to this Onan, was slain by 
God, as we read in the same chapter, 
ver. 7. And it is generally thought by 
expositors, that his sudden death was in 
punishment for the like sin of pollution. 

Q. 887. Why are the lustful kisses 
and touches mortal sins? 

A. Because they vehemently dispose to 
fornication and pollution. 

Q. 888. Is kissing by way of civility, 
when we meet friend, any sin? 

A. No, it is not. 

Q. 889. What are the remedies of 

A. To consider the beastliness of it, and 
that by it we make our bodies, which are 
members of Christ, to be members of an 
harlot. 1 Cor. vi. 15. 

Q. 890. What else? 

A. To consider that God and his angels 
are even witnesses of it, how private 
soever it may seem. 

Q. 891. What if the virtue opposite 
to lechery? 

A. Chastity, which makes us abstain 
from carnal pleasures. "Let us behave 
ourselves (saith St. Paul) as the 
ministers of God, in much patience, in 
watching, in fasting, in chastity." 2 Cor. 
vi. 4, 6. 

Q. 892. How prove you the 
greatness of this virtue? 

A. Out of Apoc. xiv. 4. "These are they 
who were not defiled with women, for 
they are virgins, these follow the Lamb 
withersoever he shall go." 

Envy Expounded 

Q. 893. WHAT is envy? 

A. It is a sadness or repining at another's 
good, in as much as it seems to lessen 
our own excellency. 

Q. 894. How prove you envy to be a 
mortal sin? 

A. Because, by the "Devil's envy death 
entered into the world, and envy was the 
cause of all sin." Wis. ii. 24. 

Q. 895. What are the daughters of 

A. Hatred, detraction, rash judgment, 
strife, reproach, contempt, and rejoicing 
at another's evil. 

Q. 896. What are the remedies of 

A. To consider that it robs us of charity, 
and deforms us to the likeness of the 

Q. 897. What is the opposite to 

A. Brotherly love, which is the chiefest 
badge of Christianity, "In this all men 
should know that you are my disciples, if 
you love one another." John xiii. 35. 

Gluttony Expounded 

Q. 898. WHAT is gluttony? 

A. An inordinate excess, or desire of 
excess in meat or drink. 

Q. 899. How prove you that to be a 
mortal sin? 


A. Out of Cor. vi. 10. "Drunkards shall 
not possess the kingdom of God." And 
Luke xxi. 34. "Take heed to yourselves, 
lest your hearts be overcharged with 
surfeiting and drunkenness." 

Q. 900. What are the daughters of 

A. Babbling scurrility, spewing, sickness, 
and dullness of soul and body. 

Q. 901. What are the remedies of 

A. To consider the abstinence of Christ 
and his Saints, and that "gluttons are 
enemies to the cross of Christ, whose 
end is destruction." Phil. iii. 19. 

Anger Expounded 

Q. 902. WHAT is anger? 

A. An inordinate desire of revenge. 

Q. 903. How prove you anger to be 

A. Out of Matt. ver. 22. "Whosoever 
shall be angry with his brother, shall be 
guilty of judgment, &c. And whosoever 
shall say, thou fool, shall be guilty of hell 

Q. 904. What are the daughters of 

A. Hatred, passion, fury, clamour, 
threats, contumey, cursing, blasphemy, 
and murder. 

Q. 905. What are the remedies of 

A. To remember the holy lesson of 
Christ, Luke xxi. 19. "In your patience 
you shall possess your souls." And that 
of St. Paul. "Be gentle one to another, 
pardoning one another, as also God in 
Christ hath pardoned you." Ephes. iv. 

32 . 

Q. 906. What is the virtue opposite 
to anger? 

A. Patience, which suppresseth in us all 
passion, and desire of revenge. 

Q. 907. How prove you the 
necessity and force of patience? 

A. Out of Heb. x. 36. "Patience is 
necessary for you, that doing the will of 
God, you may partake of the promise." 

Sloth Expounded 

Q. 908. WHAT is sloth? 

A. Laziness of mind, neglecting to begin, 
or prosecute good things. 

Q. 909. How prove you sloth to be 
a deadly sin? 

A. Out of Apoc. iii. 15. "Because thou art 
neither cold nor hot, but lukewarm, I 
will begin to cast thee out of my mouth." 

Q. 910. What other proof have 

A. Out of Matt. xxv. 30. "And the 
unprofitable servant cast ye forth into 
exterior darkness." 

Q. 911. When is sloth mortal? 

A. As often as by it we break any 
commandment of God or his church. 

Q. 912. What are daughters of 

A. Tepidity, pusillanimity, indevotion, 
weariness of life, aversion from spiritual 
things, and distrust of God's mercy. 

Q. 913. What are the remedies of 

A. To remember that of Jeremiah xlvii. 
10. "Cursed be he that doth the work of 
the Lord negligently." And to consider 


with what diligence men do worldly 

Q. 914. What is the virtue opposite 
to sloth? 

A. Diligence, which makes us careful and 
zealous to performing our duty both to 

God and men. "Take heed, watch and 
pray, for you know not when the time 
is," Matt. xiii. 33. "Strive to enter by the 
narrow gate, for many I say to you, shall 
seek to enter, and shall not be able." 
Luke xiii. 24. 

Chapter 19. 

The Sins against the Holy Ghost Expounded 

Q. 915. HOW many are the sins 
against the Holy Ghost? 

A. Six: despair of salvation, presumption 
of God's mercy, to impugn the known 
truth, envy at another's spiritual good, 
obstinacy in sin, and final impenitence. 

Q. 916. What is despair of 

A. It is a diffidence in the mercies and 
power of God as also, in the merits of 
Jesus Christ, as if they were not of force 
enough to save us. This was the sin of 
Cain, when he said, "My sin is greater 
than I can deserve pardon." Gen. iv. 13. 
And of Judas, "when casting down the 
silver pieces in the temple, he went and 
hanged himself." Matt, xxvii. 4, 5. 

Q. 917. What is the presumption of 
God's mercy? 

A. A foolish confidence of salvation, 
without leading a good life, or any care 
to keep the commandments; such as 
they entertain who think they will be 
saved by faith only, without good works. 

Q. 918. What is it to impugn the 
known truth? 

A. To argue obstinately against known 
points of faith, or to prevent the way of 
our Lord by forging lies and slander, as 
Heretics do, when they teach the 
ignorant people, that Catholics worship 
images as God, and give Angels and 
Saints the honour which is due to God; 
or that the Pope for money gives us 
pardon to commit what sins we please; 
that all which, greater falsehoods cannot 
be invented. 

Q. 919. What is the envy to 
another's spiritual good? 

A. A sadness or repining at another's 
growth in virtue and perfection; such as 
sectaries seem to have when they scoff 
and are troubled at the frequent fasts, 
prayers, feasts, pilgrimages, alms-deeds, 
vows, and religious orders of the 
Catholic Church, calling them 
superstitious and fooleries, because they 
have not in their churches any such 
practices of piety. 

Q. 920. What is obstinacy in sin? 

A. A willful persisting in wickedness, 
and running on from sin to sin, after 
sufficient instructions and admonition. 


Q. 921. How show you the malice 
of this sin? 

A. Out of Heb. x. 26, 27. "If we sin 
wilfully after having received the 
knowledge of the truth, there is now left 
no sacrifice for sins, but a certain 
dreadful expectation of judgment." 

Q. 922. What other proof have 

A. Out of 2 Pet. ii. 21. "It was better for 
them not to know the way of justice, 
than after the knowledge to turn back 
from the holy commandment which was 
given them." 

Q. 923. What is final impenitence? 

A. To die without either confession or 
contrition for our sins, as those do of 
whom it is said, "With a hard neck, and 
with uncircumcised hearts and ears, you 

always resist the Holy Ghost." Acts vii. 
51. And in the person of whom Job 
speaks, saying, "Depart thou from us, 
and we will not have the knowledge of 
thy ways." Job xxi. 14. 

Q. 924. Why is it said that those 
sins should never be forgiven, 
neither in this world, nor in the 
world to come? 

A. Not because there is no power in God 
or in the sacraments to remit them, if we 
confess them, and be sorry for them, 
(excepting only final impenitence) of 
which we read, "There is a sin to death 
for that I say not that any man ask." 1 
John i. 9. "If we confess our sins, he is 
faithful and just to forgive our sins, and 
cleanse us from all iniquity." 

Chapter 20. 

The Sins that cry to Heaven for Vengeance Expounded 

Q. 925. HOW many such sins are 

A. Four. 

Q. 926. What is the first of them? 

A. Wilful murder, which is a voluntary 
and unjust taking away another's life. 

Q. 927. How show you the pravity 
of this sin? 

A. Out of Gen. iv. 10. Where it is said to 
Cain "What hast thou done? the voice of 
the blood of thy brother crieth to me 
from the earth: now, therefore shalt 
thou be cursed upon the earth." And 

Matt, xxvi 52, "All that take the sword, 
shall perish with the sword." 

Q. 928. What is the second? 

A. The sin of Sodom, or carnal sin 
against nature, which is a voluntary 
shedding of the seed of nature, out of the 
due use of marriage, or lust with a 
different sex. 

Q. 929. What is the scripture proof 
of this? 

A. Out of Gen. xix. 13. where we read of 
the Sodomites, and their sin. "We will 
destroy this place because the cry of 
them hath increased before our Lord, 


who hath sent us to destroy them," (and 
they were burnt with fire from heaven.) 

Q. 930. What is the third? 

A. Oppressing of the poor, which is a 
cruel, tyrannical, and unjust dealing 
with inferiors. 

Q. 931. What other proof have you 
of that? 

A. Out of Exod. xxii. 21. "Ye shall not 
hurt the widow and the fatherless: If you 
do hurt them, they will cry unto me, and 
I will hear them cry, and my fury shall 
take indignation, and I will strike thee 
with the sword." 

And out of Isa. x. 1, 2. "Wo to them that 
make unjust laws, that they might 

oppress the poor in judgment, and do 
violence to the cause of the humble of 
my people." 

Q. 932. What is the fourth? 

A. To defraud working men of their 
wages, which is to lessen, or detain it 
from them. 

Q. 933. What proof have you of it? 

A. Out of Eccl. xxxiv. 37. "He that 
sheddeth blood and he that defraudeth 
the hired man, are brethren," and out of 
James v. 4. "Behold the hire of the 
workmen that have reaped your fields, 
which is defrauded by you, crieth, and 
their cry hath entered into the ears of 
the Lord God of Sabaoth." 

Chapter 21. 

The Four Last Things Expounded 

Q. 934. WHAT are the four last 

A. Death, Judgment, Hell, and Heaven. 

Q. 935. What understand you by 

A. That we are mortal, and shall once 
die; how soon, we are uncertain, and 
therefore we must be always prepared 
for it. 

Q. 936. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Heb. ix. 27. "It is decreed for 
all men once to die." And Matt. xxv. 13. 
"Watch ye therefore, because ye know 
not the day nor the hour." 

Q. 937. What is the best 
preparation for death? 

A. A godly life, and to be often doing 
penance for our sins, and saying with St. 
Paul, "I desire to be dissolved and to be 
with Christ." Phil. i. 23. 

Q. 938. What else? 

A. To remember often that of Matt. xvi. 
25. "He that will save his life shall lose it, 
and he that shall lose his life for me shall 
find it." 

Q. 939. What understand you by 

A. I understand, that (besides the 
general judgment at the last day) our 
souls as soon as we are dead, shall 
receive their particular judgment at the 
tribunal of Christ, according to that, 
"Blessed are the dead that die in the 


Lord, from henceforth now, saith the 
spirit, they rest from their labours, for 
their works follow them." Apoc. xiv. 13. 

Q. 940. What is the best 
preparation from this judgment? 

A. To remember often that of Heb. x. 31. 
It is a terrible thing to fall into the hands 
of the living God." And that of 1 Cor. xi. 
21. "For if we did judge our selves, we 
should not be judged." 

Q. 941. What understand you by 

A. That such as die in mortal sin "shall 
be tormented there both day and night, 
and for ever and ever." Apoc. xx. 21. 
"There shall be weeping, howling, and 
gnashing of teeth; the worm of 
conscience shall always gnaw them, and 
the fire that torments them, shall never 
be extinguished." Mark viii. 44, 45. 

Q. 942. What understand you by 

A. That the elect and faithful servants of 
God, shall for ever reign with him in his 
kingdom, "where he hath such delights 
and comforts for them, as neither eye 
hath seen or ear hath heard, neither 
hath it entered into the heart of man." 1 
Cor. ii. 9. 

Q. 943. How prove you that? 

A. Out of Matt. vii. 21. "He hath doth the 
will of my Father who is in heaven, shall 
enter into the kingdom of heaven." 

Q. 944. What profit is there in the 
frequent memory of all those 

A. Very great according to that, "In all 
thy works remember the last things, and 
thou shalt never sin." Eccles. vii. 40. 
which God of his great mercy give us 
grace to do. Amen. 

Chapter 22. 

The Substance or Essence, and Ceremonies 
of the Mass, Expounded 

Q. 945. WHAT is the mass? 

A. It is the unbloody sacrifice of Christ's 
body and blood, under the forms of 
bread and wine. The word Mass, used in 
English, being derived from Missa, 
Latin; and the word Missa, though it 
may have other derivations, may be well 
taken from the Hebrew word Missach, 
which signifies a free voluntary offering. 

Q. 946. Who instituted the 
substance or essence of the Mass? 

A. Our Saviour Christ at his last supper, 
when he consecrated, i.e. converted the 
substance of bread and wine into his 
own true body and blood, and gave the 
same to his disciples, under the outward 
forms of bread and wine, commanding 
them to do what he had done in 
commemoration of him. Luke xxii. 19. 

Q. 947. Who ordained the 
ceremonies of the mass? 


A. The church, directed by the Holy 

Q. 948. For what end did the 
church ordain them? 

A. To stir up devotion in the people, and 
reverence to the sacred mysteries. 

Q. 949. For what other end? 

A. To instruct the ignorant in spiritual 
and high things by sensible and material 
signs; and by the glory of the church 
militant to make them comprehend 
something of the glory of the triumphant 

Q. 950. What warrant hath the 
church to ordain ceremonies? 

A. The authority of God himself in the 
old law, commanding many and most 
stately ceremonies in things belonging 
to his service. See the whole book of 

Q. 951. What besides? 

A. The example of Christ in the new law 
using dust and spittle to cure the blind, 
the deaf, and dumb. He prostrated 
himself at prayer in the garden three 
times. He lifted up his eyes to heaven 
and groaned, when he was raising 
Lazarus from the dead, which were all 

Q. 952. Did he use any ceremonies 
at the last supper, where he 
ordained the sacrifice of the mass? 

A. He did; for he washed the feet of his 
disciples, he blessed the bread and the 
cup, and exhorted the communicants. 

Q. 953. What signify the several 
ornaments of the priest? 

A. The Amict, or linen veil, which he 
first puts on, represents the veil with 
which the Jews covered the face of 

Christ, when they buffeted him in the 
house of Caiaphas, and bid him 
prophesy, "who it was that struck him." 

2. The Alb signifies the white garment, 
which Herod put on him, to intimate 
that he was a fool. 

3. The Girdle signifies the cord that 
bound him in the garden. 

4. The Maniple, the cord which bound 
him to the pillar. 

5. The Stole, the cord by which they led 
him to the crucified. 

6. The priest's upper, Vestment, 
represents both the seamless coat of 
Christ, as also the purple garment with 
which they clothed him in derision in 
the house of Pilate. 

7. The Altar-stone, represents the cross 
on which he offered himself unto the 

8. The Chalice, the sepulchre or grave of 

9. The Paten, the stone which was rolled 
to the door of the sepulchre. 

10. The Altar-cloths, with the corporal 
and Pall, the linen in which the dead 
body of Christ was shrouded and buried. 
Finally, the candles on the Altar puts us 
in mind of the light which Christ 
brought into the world by his passion, as 
also of his immortal and ever shining 

Q. 954. What meaneth the priest's 
coming back three steps from the 
Altar, and humbling himself 
before he begins? 

A. It signifies the prostrating of Christ in 
the garden, when he began his passion. 


Q. 955. Why doth the priest bow 
himself again at the Confiteor? 

A. To move the people to humiliation; 
and to signify that by the merits and 
passion of Christ, (which they are there 
to commemorate) salvation may be had, 
if it be sought with a contrite and 
humble heart. 

Q. 956. Why doth he beat his 
breast as Mea Culpa? 

A. To teach the people to return into the 
heart, and signifies that all sin is from 
the heart, and ought to be discharged 
from the heart, with hearty sorrow. 

Q. 957. Why doth the priest, 
ascending to the Altar, kiss it in 
the middle? 

A. Because the Altar signifies the church, 
composed of divers people, as of divers 
living stones, which Christ kissed in the 
middle, by giving a holy kiss of peace 
and unity, both to the Jews and Gentiles. 

Q. 958. What signifies the Introit? 

A. It is, as it were, the entrance into the 
office, or that which the priest saith first 
after his coming to the Altar, and 
signifies the desires and groanings of the 
ancient fathers longing for the coming 

Q. 959. Why is the Introit repeated 

A. To signify the frequent repetition of 
their desires and supplications. 

Q. 960. Why do we add unto the 
Introit, Gloria Patri, &c. glory be to 
the Father, &c. Amen? 

A. To render thanks to the most Blessed 
Trinity for our redemption, 
accomplished by the cross. 

Q. 961. What means the Kyrie 

A. It signifies, "Lord have mercy on us," 
and is repeated thrice in honour of the 
Son, and thrice in honour of the Holy 

Q. 962. Why so often? 

A. To signify our great necessity, and 
earnest desires to find mercy. 

Q. 963. What means the 

It signifies, "Glory be to God on high;" 
and is the song which the angels sung at 
the birth of Christ, used in this place to 
signify, that the mercy which we beg, 
was brought us by the birth and death of 

Q. 964. What means the Oremus? 

A. It signifies, "Let us pray;" and is the 
priest's address to the people, by which 
he invites them to join with him, both in 
his prayer and intention. 

Q. 965. What means the Collect? 

A. It is the priest's prayer, and is called a 
Collect, because it collects and gathers 
together the supplications of the 
multitude, speaking them all with one 
voice and also because it is a collection, 
or sum of the Epistle and Gospel, for the 
most part of the year, especially of all 
the Sundays. 

Q. 966. Why doth the clerk say, 

A. He doth it in the name of the people, 
to signify, that all concur with the priest, 
in his petition of prayer. 

Q. 967. What meaneth the 
Dominus Vobiscum? 


A. It signifies, "Our Lord be with you," 
and is used to beg God's presence and 
assistance to the people, in the 
performance of that work. 

Q. 968. Why is it answered Et cum 
Spiritu tuo, "and with thy spirit?" 

A. To signify, that the people with one 
consent do beg the like for him. 

Q. 969. Why are all the prayers 
ended with Per Dominum nostrum 
Jesum Christum, &c. "Through 
our Lord Jesus Christ?" 

A. To signify, that whatsover we beg of 
God the Father, we must beg it in the 
name of Jesus Christ, by whom he hath 
given us all things. 

Q. 970. What signifies the Epistle? 

A. It signifies the old law; as also the 
preaching of the Prophets and the 
Apostles, out of whom it is commonly 
taken: and it is read before the Gospel, 
to intimate that the old law being able to 
bring nothing to perfection, it was 
necessary the new should succeed it. 

Q. 971. What means the Gradual? 

A. It signifies the penance preached by 
St. John Baptist, and that we cannot 
obtain the salvation of Christ, but by the 
holy degrees of penance. 

Q. 972. What means the Alleluiah? 

A. It is the voice of men rejoicing, and 
aspiring to the joys of heaven. 

Q. 973. Why is the Alleluiah 
repeated so often at the feast of 

A. Because it is the joyful solemnity of 
our Saviour's resurrection. 

Q. 974. Why between the 
Septuagesima and Easter, is the 

Tract read in the place of the 

A. Because it is a time of penance and 
mourning, and therefore the Tract is 
read with a mournful and slow voice, to 
signify the miseries and punishments of 
this life. 

Q. 975. What is the Tract? 

A. Two or three versicles between the 
Epistle and the Gospel, sung with a slow, 
long protracted tone. 

Q. 976. Why do we rise up at the 
reading of the Gospel? 

A. To signify our readiness to go, and do, 
whither, and whatsoever it commands 

Q. 977. What means the Gospel? 

A. It signifies the preaching of Christ; 
and is the happy embassy or message of 
Christ unto the world. 

Q. 978. Why is the Gospel read at 
the North end, or left side of the 

A. To signify that by the preaching of the 
Gospel of Christ, the kingdom of the 
Devil was overthrown. 

Q. 979. How prove you that? 

A. Because the Devil hath chosen the 
North (figuratively infidels, and the 
wicked) for the seat of his malice. "From 
the North shall all evil be opened upon 
all the inhabitants of the land." Jer. i. 14. 
and Zach. ii. 7. 

Q. 980. Why doth the priest before 
he begins the Gospel, salute the 
people with Dominus vobiscum? 

A. To prepare them for a devout hearing 
of it, and to beg of our Lord to make 


them worthy hearers of his word, which 
can save their souls. 

Q. 981. Why then doth he say, 
Sequentia sancti Evangelii, &c. The 
sequel of the Holy Gospel, &c.? 

A. To move attention, and to signify 
what part of the Gospel he then reads. 

Q. 982. Why doth the clerk 
answer, Gloria tibi Domine, Glory 
be to thee, O Lord? 

A. To give the glory of the gospel to God, 
who hath of his mercy made us 
partakers of it. 

Q. 983. Why then doth the priest 
sign the book with the sign of the 

A. To signify that the doctrine there 
delivered, appertains to the cross and 
passion of Christ. 

Q. 984. Why after this do both 
priest and people sign themselves 
with the cross in three places? 

A. They sign themselves on their 
foreheads, to signify they are not, nor 
will be ashamed to profess Christ 
crucified: on their mouths to signify they 
will be ready with their mouths, to 
confess unto salvation: and on their 
breast to signify that with their hearts 
they believe unto justice. 

Q. 985. Why at the end of the 
Gospel, do they sign their breast 
again with the sign of the cross? 

A. That the Devil may not steal the seed 
of God's word out of their hearts. 

Q. 986. What means the Creed? 

A. It is a public profession of out faith, 
and the wholesome fruit of preaching 
the Gospel. 

Q. 987. What means the first 
offertory, where the priest offers 
bread and wine mingled with 

A. It signifies the freedom wherewith 
Christ offered himself in his whole life 
unto his passion, and the desire he had 
to suffer for our sins. 

Q. 988. What signifies the 
mingling of water with wine? 

A. It signifies the blood and water 
flowing from the side of Christ; as also 
the union of the faithful with Christ. 

Q. 989. Why then doth the priest 
wash the ends of his fingers? 

A. To admonish both himself and the 
people to wash away the unclean 
thoughts of their hearts, that so they 
may partake of that clean sacrifice: As 
also to signify, that the priest is, ought to 
be clean from mortal sin. 

Q. 990. Why then after some 
silence, doth he begin the preface 
with an elevated voice, saying Per 
omnia saecula saeculorum? 

A. To signify the triumphant entry of 
Christ into Jerusalem, after he had lain 
hid a little space; and therefore it is 
ended with Hosana, benedictus qui 
venit, &c. which was the Hebrew 
children's song. 

Q. 991. What else meaneth the 

A. It is a preparation of the people, for 
the approaching action of the sacrifice; 
and therefore the priest saith, Sursum 
corda, lift your hearts to God; so to move 
them to lay aside all earthly thoughts, 
and to think only on heavenly things. 

Q. 992. Why at these words, 
Benedictus qui venit, Blessed is he 


that cometh in our Lord's name, 
doth he sign himself with the sign 
of the cross? 

A. To signify that the entry of Christ into 
Jerusalem was not to a kingdom of this 
world, but to a death upon the cross. 

Q. 993. What is the Canon? 

A. It is a most sacred, essential, and 
substantial part of the mass, because in 
it the sacrifice is effected. 

Q. 994. Why is the Canon read 
with a low voice? 

A. To signify the sadness in our 
Saviour's passion, which is there 
effectually represented. 

Q. 995. Why doth the priest begin 
the Canon bowing his head? 

A. To signify the obedience of Christ 
unto his Father in making himself a 
sacrifice to sin. 

Q. 996. What meaneth the Te 
igitur, clementissime Pater, &c. 
Thee therefore, O most clement 
Father, &c.? 

A. It is a humble and devout 
supplication to God our heavenly 
Father, made in the name of all the 
people, that he would vouchsafe to 
accept and bless the sacrifice which we 
are offering unto him for the peace, 
unity and conversation of the whole 
Catholic Church, and likewise for the 
Pope, our prelate, and all the other the 
truly faithful. 

Q. 997. Why in the middle of this 
prayer doth the priest kiss the 
altar, and sign the Host and 
Chalice thrice with the sign of the 

A. He kisseth the altar, to show the kiss 
of peace which Christ gave us, by 

reconciling us to God in his own blood. 
He signeth the Host and Chalice thrice 
to signify that our redemption made 
upon the Cross, was done by the will of 
the Holy Trinity. 

Q. 998. What meaneth the 
Memento Domine famulorum 
famularumque tuarum: 

Remember, O Lord, thy servants, 
men and women, &c.? 

A. It is a commemoration of the living, 
in which the pries remembers by name, 
such as he intends chiefly to say mass 
for, and then in general, all present and 
all the faithful, beseeching God by virtue 
of the sacrifice, to bless them, and be 
mercifully mindful of them. 

Q. 999. What means the 
Communicantes and memorum 
venerantes, &c. Communicating 
and worshipping the memory, &c.? 

A. It is an exercise of our communion 
with the saints in which having 
recounted the names of the blessed 
virgin Mary, and many other glorious 
saints, we beg of God by their merits and 
intercession, to grant us the assistance 
of his protection in all things. 

Q. 1000. What signifies the Hanc 
igitur oblationem, this offering 
therefore of our servitude, &c. 
when the priest spreads his hands 
over the Host and Chalice? 

A. It is an earnest begging of God to 
accept the sacrifice that is presented to 
be offered for the safety and peace of the 
whole church, and salvation of all from 
eternal damnation. 

Q. 1001. Why then doth he sign the 
offerings again five times? 


A. To signify the mystery of those five 
days which were between our Saviour's 
entry into Jerusalem and his passion. 

Q. 1002. What meaneth Qui pridie 
quam pateretur, who the day 
before he suffered, &c. 

A. It is but a repetition and 
representation of what Christ did at his 
last supper, where he took bread, 
blessed it, &c. and immediately precedes 
the words of consecration spoken by the 
priest, by which he sacrificeth to God. 

Q. 1003. What are the words of 

A. "Hoc est corpus meum. &c. This is my 
body; This is the cup of my blood, of the 
New and eternal Testament; a mystery 
of faith, which shall be shed for you, and 
for the many, to the remission of sins." 
Matt. xxvi. 27, 28. 

Q. 1004. What meaneth these 

A. They signify according to the letter, 
what they effect and cause, viz. a change 
of the bread and wine into the body and 
blood of Christ; and in a mystery also 
they signify, unto us the incarnation, 
passion, resurrection, and ascension of 

Q. 1005. Why after consecration of 
the Host, doth the priest kneel and 

A. He kneels and adores, to give 
sovereign honour to Christ, and signify 
the real presence of his body and blood 
in the blessed sacrament which he then 
holds in his hand. 

Q. 1006. Why after consecration of 
the wine, doth the priest kneel and 
adore, saying, Haec quotiescumque 
feceritis, &c. that is, "As often as 
you shall do these things, you shall 

do them in remembrance of me." 1 
Cor. xi. 25? 

A. He kneels and adores, to give 
sovereign honour to Christ, and to 
signify the real presence of Christ's body 
and blood in the chalice, then on the 
altar, and he speaks these words to 
signify, that as often as we say, or hear 
mass, and offer up this sacrifice, we 
must do it as Christ hath commanded 
us, in memory of his passion, 
resurrection and ascension: and 
therefore he goes on, beseeching God by 
all those mysteries, to look propitiously 
upon our holy and immaculate host, as 
he did upon the sacrifices of Abraham, 
Abel, and Melchisedech, and to 
replenish all that partake thereof, with 
heavenly grace and benediction. 

Q. 1007. Why after consecration of 
each, doth the priest elevate, or lift 
up the consecrated host and 

A. That all the people may adore the 
body and blood of Christ, as also to 
signify, that for our sins his body was 
lifted on the Cross and his blood shed. 

Q. 1008. For what other end doth 
he elevate the host and chalice? 

A. That he, with the whole multitude, 
may make oblations of Christ's body and 
blood unto God, which after 
consecration, is one of the most 
essential parts of the whole service of 
the mass, and signifies that oblation, 
wherewith Christ offered himself unto 
God upon the altar of the Cross. 

Q. 1009. Why then doth he again 
sign the offerings five times with 
the sign of the Cross? 

A. To signify the five wounds of Christ, 
which he represents to the eternal 
Father for us. 


Q. 1010. What means the 

A. It is a commemoration of the dead; in 
which the pries first nominates those 
whom he intends especially to apply the 
sacrifice unto; and then prays in general 
for all the faithful departed, beseeching 
God by virtue of that sacrifice, to give 
them rest, refreshment, and everlasting 

Q. toil. Why after the Momento 
for the dead, doth the priest 
elevate or raise his voice, saying, 
Nobis quoqueveccatoribus, "and to 
us sinners also," &c.? 

A. In memory of the supplication of the 
penitent thief made to Christ on the 
Cross; that so we also (though unworthy 
sinners) by the virtue of the sacrifice, 
may with him and the holy saints, be 
made partakers of the heavenly 

Q. 1012. Why then doth he again 
sign the Host and Chalice three 
times with the sign of the Cross? 

A. To signify, that this sacrifice is 
available for three sorts of men: for 
those in heaven, to the increase or glory; 
for those in purgatory, to free up them 
from their pains; and for those on earth, 
to an increase of grace and remission of 
their sins; as also to signify the three 
hours which Christ did hang living upon 
the Cross, and all the griefs he sustained 
in them. 

Q. 1013. Why then, uncovering the 
chalice, doth he sign it five times 
with the Host? 

A. His uncovering the chalice is to 
signify, that at the death of Christ the 
veil of the temple was rent asunder. The 
three crosses made over the chalice, 
signify the three hours which Christ 

hung dead on the cross; the other two 
made at the brim of the chalice, 
signifying the blood and water flowing 
from his side. 

Q. 1014. Why is the Pater Noster 
said with a loud voice? 

A. To signify, by the seven petitions 
thereof, the seven mystical words which 
Christ spoke upon the Cross with a loud 
voice, viz. "Father, forgive them, they 
know not what they do. 2. To day shalt 
thou be with me in Paradise. 3. Behold 
thy mother; woman behold thy son. 4. 
My God, my God, why hast thou 
forsaken me. 5 . 1 thirst. 6. Into thy 
hands I commend my spirit. 7. It is 

Q. 1015. What means the priest 
laying down the Host upon the 
corporal, and then covering the 
chalice again? 

A. It signifies the taking of our Saviour 
down from the Cross, and his burial. 

Q. 1016. Why, then is the priest 
silent for a time? 

A. To signify our Saviour's rest in the 
sepulchre on the Sabbath? 

Q. 1017. Why is the Host divided 
into three parts? 

A. To signify the division of our 
Saviour's soul and body made on the 
Cross, and that the body was broken, 
and divided in three principle parts, 
namely his hands, side, and feet. 

Q. 1018. Why after this doth he 
sign the chalice three times with a 
particle of the Host, and raise his 
voice saying, Pax Domini, &c., The 
peace of our Lord be always with 


A. To signify that the frequent voice of 
Christ to his disciples, Pax vobis, Peace 
be to you; as also to signify the triple 
peace which he hath purchased for us, 
by his Cross, namely, external, internal, 
and eternal. 

Q. 1019. Why then is the particle of 
the Host put into the chalice? 

A. To signify the reuniting of our 
Saviour's body, blood and soul, made at 
his resurrection; as also to signify, that 
we cannot partake of the blood and 
merits of Christ, unless we partake of his 
cup of sufferings. 

Q. 1020. Why is the Agnus Dei, or 
Lamb of God, which taketh away 
the sins of the world, said with a 
loud voice? 

A. To commemorate the glory of our 
Saviour's ascension, and to signify that 
he was slain like an innocent lamb to 
take away our sins and give us peace. 

Q. 1021. Why is the Pax, or kiss of 
peace, given before communion? 

A. To signify, that peace and mutual 
charity, which ought to be among the 
faithful, who all eat of one bread and of 
the Eucharist and are all members of 
one mystical body. 

Q. 1022. What means the three 
prayers said by the priest before 
the communion? 

A. They are said in honour of the blessed 
Trinity. In the first he begs peace for the 
whole church, and perfect charity 
among all Christians. In the second, he 
beseecheth God, by the body and blood 
of Christ, (which he is there about to 
receive) to free him from all evil. In the 
third, that it may not prove to his 
damnation and judgment, by an 
unworthy receiving of it, but to the 

defence and safety of his soul and body. 
And this immediately precedes the 
consummation of the Host and Chalice, 
which is another of the most essential 
parts of the whole service of the mass. 

Q. 1023. What signifies the 
consummation of communion? 

A. It signifies Christ's burial, and the 
consummation of his passion. 

Q. 1024. What means the Domine 
non sum dignus, &c.? 

A. It signifies, "O Lord, I am not worthy 
that thou shouldest enter under my roof; 
but only say the word," &c. And it was 
the Centurion's prayer, by which he 
obtained health for the sick boy, Matt, 
viii. 8 . And teacheth us not to approach 
this sacrifice, but with an humble and 
contrite heart. 

Q. 1025. What means the prayers 
said by the priest after 

A. They are thanksgiving to God for 
having made us partakers of his 
unbloody sacrifice of the Altar, and by it 
also of the bloody sacrifice of the Cross. 

Q. 1026. What means the words Ite 
Missa est? 

A. They signify, that the Host is offered, 
Mass ended, and the people dismissed; 
representing the voice of the angel 
dismissing the apostles and disciples 
when they stood looking up after Christ 
ascended into heaven, with, "O ye men 
of Galilee, why stand you here looking 
up into heaven?" Acts i. 11. 

Q. 1027. What means the priest 
lifting up his hands and blessing 
the people? 


A. It signifies the blessing which Christ 
gave his apostles and disciples at his 
ascension, with his hands lifted up. 

Q. 1028. What signifies the Gospel 
of St. John? 

A. It signifies the Apostles preaching the 
gospel to all nations. Luke xxiv. 50. 

Q. 1029. What is the missal? 

A. It is the Mass book, wherein this holy 
service is contained. 

Chapter 23. 

The Primer or Office of our Blessed Lady, Expounded 

Q. 1030. WHO composed this 

A. The church, directed by the Holy 

Q. 1031. Why is the Primer so 

A. From the Latin word Primo, which 
signifies, first of all, so to teach us, that 
prayer should be the first work of the 
day, according to that, "Seek ye first the 
kingdom of heaven, and all these things 
shall be given you. 

Q. 1032. Why is the office divided 
into Hymns, Psalms, Canticles, 
Antiphons, Versicles, 
Responsories, and Prayers? 

A. For order, beauty, and variety sake. 

Q. 1033. What warrant have you 
for that? 

A. Out of Col. iii. 16. "Sing ye in your 
hearts unto the Lord in spiritual Psalms, 
Hymns, and Canticles." 

Q. 1034. Why should the laity pray 
out of the Psalms, which they little 

A. 1. Because, by so doing, they pray out 
of the mouth of the Holy Ghost. 2. 

Because, if they do it with devout and 
humble hearts, it is as meritorious in 
them, as in the greatest scholars; for a 
petition hath the same force, whether it 
be delivered by a learned or unlearned 
man; so hath also prayer. 3. Because a 
psalm is of the same value in the sight of 
God, in the mouth of a child, or woman, 
as from the mouth of the most learned 

Q. 1035. Why is the office divided 
into seven several hours? 

A. That so it might be a daily memorial 
of the seven principal parts, and seven 
hours of our Saviour's passion. 

Q. 1036. What ground have you for 

A. Out of Zac. xii 10. "At that day I will 
pour out upon the house of David, and 
the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit 
of grace and prayer, and they shall look 
up at him whom they have pierced." 

Q. 1037. What meaneth at that 

A. The day of grace, the new law. 

Q. 1038. What means the house of 
David, and the inhabitants of 


A. The church of Christ. 

Q. 1039. What means the spirit of 
grace and prayer? 

A. The Holy Ghost which dictated the 
office, and poureth forth the grace of 
God into our souls by virtue of it. 

Q. 1040. What means, "And they 
shall look up at him whom they 
have pierced?" 

A. It signifies that the whole order, 
scope, and object of the office should be 
Christ crucified. 

Q. 1041. How are the seven hours a 
memorial of the passion of Christ? 

A. Because the seven hours were 
consumed in his passion; for three hours 
he hung living on the Cross; other three 
hours he hung dead upon it; and the 
seventh hour was spent in nailing him to 
and taking him from the cross. 

Q. 1042. What do we 
commemorate by the Matins and 

A. His bloody sweat in the garden; as 
also his been dragged thence to 

Q. 1043. What by the prime or first 

A. The scoffs and indignations which he 
sustained, whilst they led him through 
the streets early in the morning to the 
princes of the Jews; as also the false 
accusations which then were brought 
against him. 

Q. 1044. What by the third hour? 

A. His whipping at the pillar, his 
crowning with thorns, his clothing with 
a purple garment, his sceptre of a reed, 
and showing to the people with these 
words: Behold the man. 

Q. 1045. What by the sixth hour? 

A. His unjust condemnation to death, 
his carrying the Cross, his stripping and 
nailing to the Cross. 

Q. 1046. What by the ninth hour? 

A. His drinking gall and vinegar, his 
dying on the Cross, and the opening his 
side with a spear. 

Q. 1047. What by the even-song? 

A. His taking down from the Cross, and 
the darkness which was made upon the 
face of the earth. 

Q. 1048. What by the Compline? 

A. His funeral and burial. Briefly thus; 
The matins and lauds, his agony, and 
binding in the garden; the crime, his 
scoffs, and false accusations; the third 
hour, his clothing with purple, and 
crowning with thorns; the sixth hour, his 
condemning and nailing to the Cross; 
the ninth hour, his yielding up the ghost, 
and the opening his side; the even-song, 
his taking from the Cross; and the 
compline, his burial. 

The Particulars of the Office 

Q. 1049. WHY doth our Lady's 
office always begin with an Ave 

A. To dedicate the office of our Lady, 
and to beg her aid for the devout 
performance of it to God's honour. 

Q. 1050. Why do we begin every 
hour with, Incline unto my aid, O 
God: O Lord, make haste to help 

A. To acknowledge our infirmity and 
misery, and out great need of divine 
assistance, not 


only in all other things, but also in our 
very prayers; according to that of the 

"No man can say Lord Jesus, but in the 
Holy Ghost." 

Q. 1051. Why do we add to this, 
Glory be to the Father, and to the 
Son, and to the Holy Ghost? 

A. To signify that the intention of the 
office is, in the first place, to give one 
and equal glory to the most blessed 
Trinity, and to invite all creatures to do 
the like, this is the principle aim of the 
whole office; therefore we not only begin 
every hour, but also end every Psalm 
with the same verse. 

Q. 1052. Who ordained the Gloria 

A. The Apostles, according to Baronius 
in his 3d Tome. 

Q. 1053. Why do we join unto the 
Gloria Patri, Sicut erat, &c. As it 
was in the beginning, is now, and 
ever shall be, world without end? 

A. Because it was made by the Council of 
Nice against the Arians, who denied 
Christ to be coequal and consubstantial 
to his Father, or to have been before the 
blessed Virgin Mary. 

Q. 1054. Why after this, for a great 
part of the year, and especially 
between Easter and Whitsuntide, 
do we say, Alleluia, Alleluia? 

A. Because that is a time of joy, and 
Alleluia is a Hebrew word, signifying, 
"Praise ye the Lord with all joy, and 
exultation of heart." 

Q. 1055. Why were it not better 
changed into English? 

A. Because it is the language of the 
blessed in heaven, according to Apoc. 

viii. 6. Therefore the church hath 
forbidden it to be translated into any 
other language. 

Q. 1056. Why in Lent, and some 
other times, do we say, instead of 
Alleluiah, "Praise be to thee, O 
Lord, King of eternal Glory? 

A. Because those are times of penance; 
therefore God must be praised rather 
with tears, than exaltation. 

Q. 1057. Why then do we always 
say, for the invitatory Hail Mary, 
full of grace, the Lord is with thee? 

A. To congratulate and renew the 
memory of our blessed Lady's joy, 
conceived at the conception of her Son 
Jesus; and to invite both men and angels 
to do the like. 

Q. 1058. What signify the five 
verses following the invitatory, 
which begin, Come let us exult 
unto our Lord? 

A. The five wounds of Christ, from 
which all our prayer hath its force and 
merit, and in honour of which all those 
versions are said. 

Q. 1059. What mean the Hymns? 

A. They are a poetical expression of 
prerogatives and praises of the Blessed 

Q. 1060. Why are so many Psalms 
used in the office? 

A. Because they are directed by the Holy 
Ghost, and do contain in a most moving 
manner, all the affections of piety and 

Q. 1061. Why are there but three 
Psalms in the most of the hours? 


A. In honour of the most blessed Trinity, 
to whom chiefly the whole office is 

Q. 1062. Why was the office 
divided into so many hours? 

A. I have told you the chief reason 
already, and one other reason is, that so 
there might be no hour either by day or 
night, to which some hour of the office 
might not correspond. 

Q. 1063. What do the matins 
correspond to? 

A. To the first, second, and third watch 
of the night, consisting of three hours 
each; and therefore the matins consist of 
three psalms, and three lessons. 

Q. 1064. What do the lauds 
correspond to? 

A. To the fourth watch of the night. 

Q. 1065. What do the prime, the 
third, sixth, and ninth hours 
correspond to? 

A. To the third, sixth, and ninth hours of 
the day. 

Q. 1066. What do the even-song 
and compline correspond to? 

A. To the evening. 

Q. 1067. What means the 
benedictions, or blessings given 
before the lesson? 

A. They are short aspirations to beg 
divine assistance; and the first is in 
honour of the Father, and the second in 
honour of the Son, the third in honour of 
the Holy Ghost. 

Q. 1068. What doth the lesson 

A. The mystical praises of our blessed 
Lady, taken out of the Prophets. 

Q. 1069. Why do we end every 
lesson, saying, But thou, O Lord, 
have mercy upon us? 

A. To beg the praises and virtues of the 
blessed Virgin, which we have there 
read, may be deeply settled in our 
hearts, and that God would pardon our 
former negligence, both in his and her 

Q. 1070. Why is it answered, 
Thanks be to God? 

A. To render thanks to God for his 
mercy, in bestowing such a patroness on 
us as the blessed Virgin Mary. 

Q. 1071. What means the 

A. They are so called, because they 
answer one another. 

Q. 1072. What are the antiphons? 

A. The versicles which are begun before 
the Psalms. 

Q. 1073. Why do we stand up at the 
Magnificat, Benedictus, and Nunc 

A. To signify our reverence to the gospel 
whence they are taken. 

Q. 1074. What is the collect? 

A. It is a prayer, and is so called, because 
it collects and gathers together all the 
petitions and supplications of the whole 

Q. 1075. Why is the collect always 
ended with these words, Through 
our Lord Jesus Christ, &c.? 

A. To signify that he is our only mediator 
of redemption, and principally mediator 
of intercession; and that we cannot 
merit any thing by our prayers unless we 
make them in his name. 


Q. 1076. Why make we a 
commemoration of the Saints? 

A. To praise God in his Saints, according 
to the advice of the Psalmist, Psalm cl., 
and to recommend ourselves to their 
merits and prayers. 

Q. 1077. Why end we every prayer 
with these words, And may the 
souls of the faithful, through the 
mercy of God, rest in peace? 

A. That the poor souls in purgatory, may 
be partakers of all our prayers and 

Q. 1078. Why is the whole office 
ended with some hymn or 
antiphon to our Lady? 

A. That by her it may be presented to her 
Son, and by him to his eternal Father. 

Q. 1079. Why are the nocturnes in 
some offices so called? 

A. Because those parts of the offices 
were wont to be said Nocturne tempore, 
in the night time. 

Q. 1080. Why are the fifteen 
gradual psalms so called? 

A. From a custom the Jews observed of 
singing them, as they ascended up 
fifteen steps or degrees (in Latin 
Gradus) towards Solomon's Temple, 
singing one psalm on every step. 

Q. 1081. Why are the penitential 
psalms so called? 

A. Because they contain many deep 
expressions of inward sorrow and 
penitence, or repentance of sins 
committed, and many cries or 
supplications to God for mercy and 

Chapter 24. 

The Solemnities of CHRIST our Lord, 
(instituted for the most part by the Apostles) 
and the Sundays of the Year, Expounded 

Q. 1082. WHAT meaneth the 
nativity of Christ, or Christmas? 

A. It is a solemn feast or mass yearly 
celebrated by the whole Catholic Church 
from the Apostles' time to this day, in 
memory of the birth of Christ at 
Bethlehem; and therefore is called the 
feast of the Nativity, and Christmas from 
the mass of the birth of Christ. 

Q. 1083. What meaneth the 
Circumcision or New-year's Day. 

A. It is a feast in memory of the 
Circumcision of our Lord, which was 
made on the eighth day from his nativity 
according to the prescript of the old law, 
Gen. xviii. 12, when he was named Jesus 
according to what the angel had 
foretold, Luke i. 14, and began to shed 
his infant blood by the stony knife of 
Circumcision for the redemption of the 
world, presenting it to his Father, as a 
New-year's gift in our behalf. And it is 
called New year's day from the old 


Roman account, who began their 
computation of the year from the first of 

Q. 1084. What meaneth the 
Epiphany, or twelfth day? 

A. It is a solemnity in memory and 
honour of Christ's manifestation or 
apparition made to the Gentiles by a 
miraculous blazing star, by virtue 
whereof he drew and conducted three 
kings out of the East to adore him in the 
manager, where they presented him as 
on this day with gold, myrrh, and 
frankincense, in testimony of his 
regality, humanity, and divinity. The 
word Epiphany comes from the Greek, 
and signifies a manifestation, and is 
called Twelfth-day, because it is 
celebrated the twelfth day after his 
nativity exclusively. 

Q. 1085. What meaneth 
purification or Candlemass-day? 

A. It is a feast in memory and honour 
both of the presentation of our blessed 
Lord, and of the purification of the 
blessed Virgin, made in the Temple of 
Jerusalem the fortieth day after her 
happy child birth, according to the law 
of Moses, Levit. xii. 6. And is called the 
Purification, from the Latin word 
Purifico, to purity; not that our blessed 
Lady and contracted any thing by her 
child-birth, which needed purifying, 
(being the mother of purity itself) but 
because other mothers were by this 
ceremonial rite freed from the legal 
impurity of their child-births. 

And is also called Candlemass, or a Mass 
Candles; because before the mass of that 
day, the church blesses her candles for 
the whole year, and makes a procession 
with hallowed candles in the hands of 
the faithful, in memory of divine light, 
wherewith Christ illuminated the whole 

church at his presentation, where aged 
Simeon styled him, "A light to the 
Revelation of the Gentiles, and the glory 
of his people Israel." Luke ii. 32. 

Q. 1086. What meaneth the 
resurrection of our Lord, or 

A. It is a solemnity in memory and 
honour of our Saviour's resurrection, or 
rising from the dead on the third day, 
Matt, xxvii. 6. And is called Easter, from 
Oriens, which signifies the East or 
Rising, which is one of the titles of 
Christ, "And his name (saith the 
prophet) shall be called Oriens." Zach. 
vi. 12, because as the material sun daily 
ariseth from the East, the sun of justice, 
at this day, arose from the dead. 

Q. 1087. What meaneth ascension- 

A. If is from a feast in memory of 
Christ's ascension into heaven the 
fortieth day after his resurrection, in the 
sight of his Apostles and Disciples, Acts 
i. 9, 10, there to prepare a place for us, 
being preceded by whole legions of 
Angels, and waited on by millions of 
Saints, whom he had freed out of the 
prison of Limbo. Mich. ii. 13. 

Q. 1088. What meaneth Pentecost 
or Whitsuntide? 

A. It is a solemn feast in memory and 
honour of the coming of the Holy Ghost 
upon the heads of the Apostles, in 
tongues as it were of fire, Acts ii. 3. 
Pentecost in Greek signifieth the 
Fiftieth, it being the fiftieth day after the 
resurrection. If is also called 
Whitsunday from the Catechumens, who 
were clothed in white, and admitted on 
the eve of this feast to the sacrament of 
baptism. It was anciently called Wied 
Sunday, (i.e.) Holy Sunday, for wied or 


withed signifies Holy in the old Saxon 

Q. 1089. What meaneth Trinity 

A. It is the octave of Whitsunday, and is 
so called in honour of the Blessed 
Trinity, to signify that the works of our 
redemption and sanctification then 
completed, are common to all the three 

Q. 1090. What meaneth Corpus 
Christi day? 

A. It is a feast instituted by the church, 
in honour of the body and blood of 
Christ, really present in the most holy 
sacrament of the Eucharist; during the 
octave of which feast, it is exposed to be 
adored by the faithful in all the principle 
churches of the world, and great 
processions are made in honour of it; 
and therefore is called Corpus Christi 
day, or the day of the body of Christ. 

Q. 1091. What meaneth the 
transfiguration of our Lord? 

A. It is a feast in memory of our 
Saviour's transfiguring himself upon 
Mount Tabor, and showing a glimpse of 
his glory to his Apostles, St. Peter, St. 
James, and St. John. "And his face (saith 
the text) shown as the sun, and his 
garment became white as snow," & c. 
Matt. xvii. 2. And in them also unto us, 
for our encouragement to virtue, and 
perseverance in his holy faith and love. 
The entymology is obvious from 
transfiguro, to transfigure, or to change 

Q. 1092. What is Sunday, or the 
Lord's Day in general? 

A. It is a day dedicated by the Apostles 
to the honour of the most holy Trinity, 
and in memory that Christ our Lord 

arose from the dead upon Sunday, sent 
down the holy Ghost on a Sunday, &c. 
and therefore is called the Lord's Day. It 
is also called Sunday from the old 
Roman denomination of Dies Solis, the 
day of the sun, to which it was sacred. 

Q. 1093. What are the four 
Sundays of Advent? 

A. They are the four Sundays preceding 
Christmas day, and were so called by the 
church, in memory and honour of our 
Saviour's coming both to redeem the 
world by his birth in the flesh, and to 
judge the quick and the dead; from the 
Latin word Adventus, which signifies 
Advent, or coming. 

Q. 1094. What are the four 
Sundays of Septuagesima, 
Sexagesima, Quinquagesiam, and 

A. Those days are appointed by the 
church for acts of penance and 
mortification, and are a certain 
gradation or preparation for the passion 
and resurrection of Christ, being so 
called, because the first is the seventieth, 
the second the sixtieth, the third the 
fiftieth, the fourth the fortieth day, or 
thereabouts, preceding the octave of the 
resurrection according as their several 
names import. 

Q. 1095. Why is the whole lent 
called Quadragesima? 

A. Because it is a fast of forty days, in 
imitation of Christ's fasting in the desert 
forty days and forty nights, and is begun 
the fortieth day before Easter, which is 
therefore called Quadragesima, or the 

Q. 1096. What is Passion-Sunday? 

A. That is a feast so called from the 
passion of Christ then drawing nigh, and 


was ordained to prepare us for a worthy 
celebrating of it. 

Q. 1097. Why is Palm-Sunday so 

A. It is a day in memory and honour of 
the triumphant entry of our Lord into 
Jerusalem, and is so called from the 
palm branches, which the Hebrew 
children strewed under his feet, crying 
Hosanna to the Son of David, Matt. xxi. 
15. And hence it is that yearly, as on that 
day, the church blesseth Palms, and 
makes a solemn procession in honour of 
the same triumph, all the people bearing 
Palm branches in their hands. 

Q. 1098. What is Dominica in 
albis, commonly called Low- 

A. It is the octave of Easter-day; and is 
so called from the Catechumens, or 
Neophytes, who were on that day 
solemnly divested in the church of their 
white garments. 

The Feasts of our Blessed 
Lady, and the Saints, 

Q. 1099. WHAT means the 
conception, nativity, presentation, 
annunciation, visitation, and 
assumption of our blessed Lady? 

A. They are feasts instituted by the 
church in memory and honour of the 
mother of God, but chiefly to the honour 
of God himself; and so are all the other 
feasts of Saints. 

Q. 1100. How explain you that 

A. The feast of the Conception is in 
memory of her miraculous conception, 
who was conceived by her parents, St. 
Joachim and St. Anne, in their old age, 

and sanctified from the first instant in 
the womb. The Nativity is in the 
memory of her happy and glorious birth, 
by whom the author of all life and 
salvation was born to the world. The 
Presentation, in memory of her being 
present in the Temple at three years old, 
where she vowed herself to God, both 
soul and body. The Annunciation is in 
memory of that most happy embassy 
brought to her by the angel Gabriel from 
God, in which she was declared to be the 
mother of God, Luke i. 31, 32. The 
Visitation is in memory of her visiting 
St. Elizabeth, after she had conceived 
the Son of God, at whose presence St. 
John the Baptist leaped in his mother's 
womb, Luke i. 41. And her Assumption 
is in memory of her being assumed or 
taken up into heaven, both soul and 
body, after her dissolution or dormition; 
which is a pious and well-founded 
tradition in the church. 

Q. 1101. For what end are the 
several solemnities of Saints? 

A. They are instituted by our holy 
mother the church, to honour God in his 
Saints, and to teach us to imitate their 
several kinds of martyrdoms and 
sufferings for the faith of Christ, as also 
their several ways of virtue and 
perfection: as the zeal, charity, and 
poverty of the Apostles and Evangelists; 
the fortitude of the martyrs the 
constancy of the confessors; the purity 
and humility of the virgins, &c. 

Q. 1102. What meaneth the feast of 
St. Peter's installing and erecting 
his apostolical chair in the city of 

A. It is kept in memory of St. Peter's 
installing and erecting his apostolical 
chair in the city of Antioch. 


Q. 1103. What is the feast of his 
chair at Rome? 

A. It is a solemnity in honour of the 
translation of his chair from Antioch to 

Q. 1104. Why are St. Peter and St. 
Paul joined in one solemnity? 

A. Because they are principle and joint 
co-operators under Christ in the 
conversion of the world, St. Peter 
converting the Jews, and St. Paul, the 
Gentiles; as also because both of them 
were martyred at he same place Rome, 
and on the same day, June 29. 

Q. 1105. What means the feast of 
St. Peter and Vincula, or St. Peter's 

A. It is in honour of those chains 
wherewith Herod bound St. Peter in 
Jerusalem, and from which he was freed 
by an angel of God, Acts xii. by only the 
touch whereof great miracles were 
afterwards effected; to say nothing of 
their miraculous joining together many 
years after into one chain, with those 
iron fetters, with which they had been 
imprisoned in Rome. 

Q. 1106. What meaneth the feast of 

A. It is a solemnity or solemn mass in 
honour of St. Michael, prince of the 
heavenly host, and likewise of all the 
nine orders of holy angels; as well to 
commemorate that famous battle fought 
by him and them in heaven, against the 
dragon and his apostate angels, Apoc. 
xii. 7. in defence of God's honour; as also 
to commend the whole church of God to 
their patronage and prayers. And it is 
called the dedication of St. Michael, by 
reason of a church in Rome, dedicated 
on that day to St. Michael, by Pope 
Boniface. There is another feast called 

the apparition of St. Michael, and is in 
memory of his miraculous apparition on 
Mount Garganus, where by his own 
appointment, a temple was dedicated to 
him in Pope Gelasius' time. 

Q. 1107. For what reason hath the 
holy church ordained a solemnity 
in memory of all the Saints? 

A. That so at least we might obtain the 
prayers and patronage of them all, 
seeing the whole year is much too short 
to afford us a particular feast for every 

Q. 1108. What meaneth All Souls 

A. It is a day instituted by the church, in 
memory of all the faithful departed, that 
by the prayers and suffrages of the 
living, they may be freed out of their 
purgatory pains, and come to everlasting 

Q. 1109. What means Shrove-tide? 

A. It signifies a time of confession; for 
our ancestors were used to say, we will 
go to the shrift, instead of we will go to 
confession, and in the more primitive 
times all good Christians went to 
confession, the better to prepare 
themselves for a holy observation of 
Lent, and worthy receiving the blessed 
sacrament at Easter. 

Q. 1110. What signifies Ash- 

A. It is a day of public penance and 
humiliation in the whole church of God, 
and is so called from the ceremony of 
blessing ashes on that day, wherewith 
the priest signeth the people, with a 
cross on their foreheads, giving them 
this wholesome admonition, Memento 
homo, &c. Remember man that thou art 
dust, and to dust thou shalt return. So to 


prepare them for the holy fast of Lent, 
and passion of Christ. 

Q. 1111. What means Maundy 

A. That is a feast in memory of our 
Lord's last supper, where he instituted 
the blessed Eucharist, or sacrament of 
his precious body and blood, and 
washed his disciples' feet; and it is called 
Maundy Thursday, as it were mandatum 
or mandat Thursday from the first word 
of the Antiphon, mandatum novum de 
vobis, &c. John xiii. 34. "I give unto you 
a new command, (or mandat) that you 
love one another, as I have loved you;" 
which is sing on that day in the 
churches, when the prelates begin the 
ceremony of washing their people's feet, 
in imitation of Christ's washing his 
disciple's feet, before he instituted the 
blessed sacrament. 

Q. 1112. What meaneth Good- 

A. It is a most sacred and memorable 
day of which the great good work of our 
redemption was consummated by Christ 
on his bloody cross. 

Q. 1113. What means the three 
days of Tenebrae, before Easter? 

A. It is a mournful solemnity, in which 
the church laments the death of Christ; 
and is called Tenebrae or darkness, to 
signify the darkness which overspread 
the face of the earth, at the time of his 
passion, for which end also the church 
extinguisheth all her lights, and after 
some silence, at the end of the whole 
office, maketh a great and sudden noise, 
to represent the rending the veil of the 
Temple. The darkness also signifies the 
dark time of the night wherein Christ 
was apprehended in the garden, and the 
noise made by the soldiers and catch- 

poles at their seizing on our Saviour's 

Q. 1114. What meaneth Rogation 
week, being the fifth after Easter? 

A. It is a week of public prayer and 
confession for the temperateness of the 
seasons of the year, and the fruitfulness 
of the earth, and it is called Rogation 
from the verb Roga, to ask by reason of 
the petitions made to God in that behalf. 

Q. 1115. What means the Quatuor 
tempora, or four Ember weeks, or 
Ember Days? 

A. Those are times also of public prayer, 
fasting, and processions partly instituted 
for the successful ordination of the 
priest and ministers of the church, and 
partly, both to beg and render thanks to 
God for the fruits and blessings of the 
earth. And are called Ember days, or 
days of Ashes, from the no less ancient 
than religious custom of using hair-cloth 
and ashes, in time of public prayer and 
penance; or from the old custom of 
eating nothing on those days till night, 
and then only a cake baked under the 
embers or ashes, which was called, 

Panis, subcineritius, or Ember bread. 

Q. 1116. What mean the two Holy 
Rood Days? 

A. Those are two ancient feasts: the one 
in memory of the miraculous invention, 
or finding out the holy cross by St. 

Helen, mother of Constantine the great, 
after it had been hid and buried by the 
Infidels one hundred and eighty years, 
who had erected a statue of Venus in the 
place of it. The other in memory of the 
exaltation, or setting up the holy cross 
by Heraclius the emperor, who having 
regained it a second time from the 
Persians, after it had been lost fourteen 
years, carried it on his own shoulders to 
Mount Calvary, and there exalted it with 


precious body of Christ; the word Rood 
in the old Saxon tongue, signifying 

great solemnity; and it is called Holy 
Rood, or Holy Cross, for the great 
sanctity which it received by touching 
and bearing the oblation of the most 

Chapter 25. 

Some Ceremonies of the Church Expounded 

Q. 1117. WHAT is holy water? 

A. A water sanctified by the word of God 
and prayer, l Tim. iv. 5, in order to 
certain spiritual effects. 

Q. 1118. what are those effects? 

A. The chief are, 1. To make us mindful 
of our baptism, by which we entered into 
Christ's mystical body, and therefore we 
are taught to sprinkle ourselves with it 
as often as we enter the material Temple 
(which is a type thereof to celebrate his 
praise.) 2. To fortify against the illusions 
of evil spirits, against whom it hath great 
force as witnessed Theodoret, Eccl. Hist. 
1. 5, c. 31. And hence arose the proverb, 
He loves it, (speaking of things we hate) 
as the Devil loves holy water. 

Q. 1119. How ancient is the use of 
Holy water? 

A. Ever since the apostles' time; Pope 
Alexander I. who was but the fourth 
Pope from St. Peter, makes mention of it 
in one of his epistles. Exod. xxxvii. 8., 2 
Par. iv. 6.; 4 Kings ii. 21.; Ps. I. 9.; Heb. 
ix. 19.; x. 22; De Cons. Dist. iii. c. 20; B. 
Greg. Pastor, Pars ii. c. 5. 

Q. 1120. Why is incense offered in 
the church? 

A. To raise in the mind of the people an 
awe of the mysterious in the action to 
which it is applied, and to beget a pious 
esteem of it, as also to signify, that out 

prayers ought to ascend like a sweet 
perfume in the sight of God. "Tis 
mentioned by St. Dionysius, Eccles 
Hierarch, c. 3. 

Q. 1121. Why is the cross carried 
before us in procession? 

A. To show that our pilgrimage in this 
life is nothing but a following of Christ 

Q. 1122. Why are our foreheads 
signed with holy ashes on Ash 

A. To remind us of what we are made, 
and to admonish us to do penance for 
our sins, as the Ninevites did in fasting, 
sackcloth, and ashes, especially in the 
holy time of Lent. 

Q. 1123. Who ordained the solemn 
fast of Lent? 

A. The twelve Apostles, according to 
Heirom Epist. ad Marcel, in memory 
and imitation of our Saviour's fasting 
forty days. 

Q. 1124. Why are the crosses and 
holy images covered in time of 

A. To signify that our sins (for which we 
then do penance) interpose between 
God and us, and to express an 
ecclesiastical kind of mourning in 
reference to our Saviour's passion. 


Q. 1125. Why is a veil drawn 
between the altar-piece and the 
people in Lent time? 

A. To intimate, that, as our sins are as a 
veil which binder us from seeing the 
beatific vision, or face of God; and as the 
veil of the Temple was rent at the death 
of Christ, so is the veil of our sins by 
virtue of his cross and passion, if we 
apply it by worthy fruits of penance. 

Q. 1126. What means the fifteen 
lights set on the triangular figure 
on Wednesday, Thursday, and 
Friday in holy-week? 

A. The three upper lights signify Jesus, 
Mary, and Joseph; the twelve lower, the 
twelve Apostles. The triangular figure 
signifies, that all light of grace and glory 
is from the blessed Trinity; and fourteen 
of those lights are extinguished on by 
one after every Psalm, to show how all 
their light of spiritual comfort was 
extinguished for a time in those most 
Holy Saints, by the passion and burial of 
Christ. The fifteenth light is put under 
the altar to signify his being in the 
sepulchre, as also the darkness that 
overspread the whole earth at his death. 

Q. 1127. What signifies the noise 
made after a long silence, at the 
end of the office of Tenebrae? 

A. The silence signifies the horror of our 
Saviour's death; the noise, the cleaving 
of the rocks and rending the veil of the 
Temple which then happened. 

Q. 1128. Why is the paschal candle 
hallowed and set up at Easter? 

A. To signify the new light of the 
spiritual joy and comfort, which Christ 
brought us at his resurrection; and it is 

lighted from the beginning of the Gospel 
till after the communion, between 
Easter and Ascension, to signify the 
apparitions which Christ made to his 
disciples during that space. 

Q. 1129. Why is the font hallowed? 

A. Because the Apostles so ordered it, 
according to St. Dionysius, who lived in 
their time. 1 Eccl. Hier. c. 2. 

Q. 1130. Why is that ceremony 
performed at the feast of Easter 
and Whitsuntide? 

A. To show that, as in baptism we are 
buried with Christ, so by virtue of his 
resurrection, and the coming of the Holy 
Ghost, we ought to rise again, and walk 
with him in newness of life. 

Q. 1131. Why is the material church 
or temple hallowed? 

A. Because it bears a figure of the 
spiritual, viz. the mystical body of 
Christ, which is holy and unspotted, 
Ephes. v. 27. as also to move us to some 
special reverence and devotion in that 
place, and all things should be holy in 
some measure, which appertain to the 
service of our most Holy God. 

Q. 1132. Why is the altar 

A. Because if the altar in the old law was 
so holy that it sanctified the gift, Matt, 
xxiii. 19. much more ought the altar of 
the new law to be holy, which is the 
place of the body and blood of Christ, 
according to Optatus, in his sixth book 
against Parmenian the Donatist. "We 
have an altar (saith St. Paul) whereof 
they (the Jews) have no power to eat, 
who serve the Tabernacle." Heb. xiii. 10.